The diversity of lncRNAs has expanded within mammals in tandem with the evolution of increased brain complexity, suggesting that lncRNAs play an integral role in this process. In this chapter, we will highlight the identification and characterization of lncRNAs in nervous system development. We discuss the potential role of lncRNAs in nervous system and brain evolution, along with efforts to create comprehensive catalogues that analyze spatial and temporal changes in lncRNA expression during nervous system development. Additionally, we focus on recent endeavors that attempt to assign function to lncRNAs during nervous system development. We highlight discrepancies that have been observed between inÂ vitro and inÂ vivo studies of lncRNA function and the challenges facing researchers in conducting mechanistic analyses of lncRNAs in the developing nervous system. Altogether, this chapter highlights the emerging role of lncRNAs in the developing brain and sheds light on novel, RNA-mediated mechanisms by which nervous system development is controlled.