Understanding and evaluating shoulder pain in the throwing athlete

Nickolas G. Garbis, Edward G. McFarland

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Shoulder pain in the throwing athlete can present at any age and in any level of sport and can lead to dysfunction. A thorough evaluation of the throwing athlete can often determine the cause of symptoms, which is frequently multifactorial. Although the pathophysiology leading to pain in the shoulder of the throwing athlete is not entirely known, nonoperative modalities remain the mainstay of treatment. In general, surgical intervention should be reserved as a last resort. Effective treatment often requires collaboration among trainers, players, physicians, and therapists to determine an appropriate course of action.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)735-761
Number of pages27
JournalPhysical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014


  • Biomechanics
  • Overhead athlete
  • Rehabilitation
  • Surgical management
  • Throwing athletes
  • Throwing motion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Rehabilitation


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