Uncorrected refractive error and presbyopia among junior high school teachers in Jakarta, Indonesia

Joshua R. Ehrlich, Alex Laoh, Nick Kourgialis, Widya Prasetyanti, Rima Zakiyah, Silvana Faillace, David S Friedman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Purpose: To report on the frequency of observed refractive and accommodative errors among junior high school teachers in Jakarta, Indonesia, who participated in a Helen Keller International screening, refraction and spectacle distribution program. Methods: A total of 965 teachers from 19 schools were eligible for screening; those with uncorrected distance visual acuity (VA) 6/12-3 and teachers 35 years old with uncorrected end-point print size >Jaeger (J) 6 were referred. Autorefraction and subjective refraction were performed for teachers with confirmed decreased VA. Refractive error was considered present if sphere -0.75 diopters (D), sphere +0.25D or cylinder -0.50D resulted in 2 lines of improvement in VA. Presbyopia was considered present if an end-point print size >J6 improved by 1 optotype with the use of a lens +1.00D. Results: Overall, 866 teachers were screened (89.7% of those eligible) with complete screening data available for 858 (99.0%), among whom 762 failed screening. Distance refraction data were available for 666 of 762 (87.4%) and near refraction data for 520 of 686 (75.8%) teachers who failed screening. Of those screened, 76.2±9.0% of teachers had refractive and/or accommodative error and 57.1±7.6% had uncorrected refractive and/or accommodative error. Overall and uncorrected distance refractive error affected 44.2±3.7% and 36.0±3.6%, respectively; overall and uncorrected presbyopia affected 66.4±8.1% and 41.0±6.6%, respectively. Conclusion: As defined in this program, refractive and accommodative errors were common among teachers in Jakarta.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)369-374
Number of pages6
JournalOphthalmic Epidemiology
Volume20
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2013

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Presbyopia
Refractive Errors
Indonesia
Visual Acuity
Lenses
School Teachers

Keywords

  • Indonesia
  • Presbyopia
  • School teachers
  • Vision screening
  • Visual acuity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Epidemiology

Cite this

Uncorrected refractive error and presbyopia among junior high school teachers in Jakarta, Indonesia. / Ehrlich, Joshua R.; Laoh, Alex; Kourgialis, Nick; Prasetyanti, Widya; Zakiyah, Rima; Faillace, Silvana; Friedman, David S.

In: Ophthalmic Epidemiology, Vol. 20, No. 6, 12.2013, p. 369-374.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ehrlich, Joshua R. ; Laoh, Alex ; Kourgialis, Nick ; Prasetyanti, Widya ; Zakiyah, Rima ; Faillace, Silvana ; Friedman, David S. / Uncorrected refractive error and presbyopia among junior high school teachers in Jakarta, Indonesia. In: Ophthalmic Epidemiology. 2013 ; Vol. 20, No. 6. pp. 369-374.
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abstract = "Purpose: To report on the frequency of observed refractive and accommodative errors among junior high school teachers in Jakarta, Indonesia, who participated in a Helen Keller International screening, refraction and spectacle distribution program. Methods: A total of 965 teachers from 19 schools were eligible for screening; those with uncorrected distance visual acuity (VA) 6/12-3 and teachers 35 years old with uncorrected end-point print size >Jaeger (J) 6 were referred. Autorefraction and subjective refraction were performed for teachers with confirmed decreased VA. Refractive error was considered present if sphere -0.75 diopters (D), sphere +0.25D or cylinder -0.50D resulted in 2 lines of improvement in VA. Presbyopia was considered present if an end-point print size >J6 improved by 1 optotype with the use of a lens +1.00D. Results: Overall, 866 teachers were screened (89.7{\%} of those eligible) with complete screening data available for 858 (99.0{\%}), among whom 762 failed screening. Distance refraction data were available for 666 of 762 (87.4{\%}) and near refraction data for 520 of 686 (75.8{\%}) teachers who failed screening. Of those screened, 76.2±9.0{\%} of teachers had refractive and/or accommodative error and 57.1±7.6{\%} had uncorrected refractive and/or accommodative error. Overall and uncorrected distance refractive error affected 44.2±3.7{\%} and 36.0±3.6{\%}, respectively; overall and uncorrected presbyopia affected 66.4±8.1{\%} and 41.0±6.6{\%}, respectively. Conclusion: As defined in this program, refractive and accommodative errors were common among teachers in Jakarta.",
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AB - Purpose: To report on the frequency of observed refractive and accommodative errors among junior high school teachers in Jakarta, Indonesia, who participated in a Helen Keller International screening, refraction and spectacle distribution program. Methods: A total of 965 teachers from 19 schools were eligible for screening; those with uncorrected distance visual acuity (VA) 6/12-3 and teachers 35 years old with uncorrected end-point print size >Jaeger (J) 6 were referred. Autorefraction and subjective refraction were performed for teachers with confirmed decreased VA. Refractive error was considered present if sphere -0.75 diopters (D), sphere +0.25D or cylinder -0.50D resulted in 2 lines of improvement in VA. Presbyopia was considered present if an end-point print size >J6 improved by 1 optotype with the use of a lens +1.00D. Results: Overall, 866 teachers were screened (89.7% of those eligible) with complete screening data available for 858 (99.0%), among whom 762 failed screening. Distance refraction data were available for 666 of 762 (87.4%) and near refraction data for 520 of 686 (75.8%) teachers who failed screening. Of those screened, 76.2±9.0% of teachers had refractive and/or accommodative error and 57.1±7.6% had uncorrected refractive and/or accommodative error. Overall and uncorrected distance refractive error affected 44.2±3.7% and 36.0±3.6%, respectively; overall and uncorrected presbyopia affected 66.4±8.1% and 41.0±6.6%, respectively. Conclusion: As defined in this program, refractive and accommodative errors were common among teachers in Jakarta.

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KW - Visual acuity

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