Uncorrected refractive error and presbyopia among junior high school teachers in Jakarta, Indonesia

Joshua R. Ehrlich, Alex Laoh, Nick Kourgialis, Widya Prasetyanti, Rima Zakiyah, Silvana Faillace, David S. Friedman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: To report on the frequency of observed refractive and accommodative errors among junior high school teachers in Jakarta, Indonesia, who participated in a Helen Keller International screening, refraction and spectacle distribution program. Methods: A total of 965 teachers from 19 schools were eligible for screening; those with uncorrected distance visual acuity (VA) 6/12-3 and teachers 35 years old with uncorrected end-point print size >Jaeger (J) 6 were referred. Autorefraction and subjective refraction were performed for teachers with confirmed decreased VA. Refractive error was considered present if sphere -0.75 diopters (D), sphere +0.25D or cylinder -0.50D resulted in 2 lines of improvement in VA. Presbyopia was considered present if an end-point print size >J6 improved by 1 optotype with the use of a lens +1.00D. Results: Overall, 866 teachers were screened (89.7% of those eligible) with complete screening data available for 858 (99.0%), among whom 762 failed screening. Distance refraction data were available for 666 of 762 (87.4%) and near refraction data for 520 of 686 (75.8%) teachers who failed screening. Of those screened, 76.2±9.0% of teachers had refractive and/or accommodative error and 57.1±7.6% had uncorrected refractive and/or accommodative error. Overall and uncorrected distance refractive error affected 44.2±3.7% and 36.0±3.6%, respectively; overall and uncorrected presbyopia affected 66.4±8.1% and 41.0±6.6%, respectively. Conclusion: As defined in this program, refractive and accommodative errors were common among teachers in Jakarta.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)369-374
Number of pages6
JournalOphthalmic Epidemiology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2013


  • Indonesia
  • Presbyopia
  • School teachers
  • Vision screening
  • Visual acuity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Ophthalmology


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