The objective of this review is to discuss the current knowledge of fetal pulmonary hypoplasia and to summarize the clinical significance of the many ultrasound methods for predicting pulmonary hypoplasia in pregnancies complicated by oligohydramnios due to spontaneous rupture of the fetal membranes and in cases complicated by fetal congenital diaphragmatic hernia. We concluded that the presence or absence of poly-hydramnios, fetal breathing movements, mediastinal shift, thoracic position of the stomach, fetal breathing-related nasal and oropharyngeal fluid flow, ductal flow velocity modulation, and gestational age at onset and severity of ventricular disproportion as useful markers for predicting fetal pulmonary hypoplasia is a productive area for continued research. All studies show that there is a clear association between most of these markers and pulmonary hypoplasia. However, these markers have not been studied together in a large number of cases, and comparisons between each of the markers is unknown.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Obstetrics and Gynecology