Background: The authors compared the outcomes of two-stage, acellular dermal matrix (AlloDerm)-assisted prosthetic breast reconstruction including different timings of radiotherapy. Methods: A review of two-stage, AlloDerm-assisted, prosthetic breast reconstructions from 2004 to 2010 was performed. All data were recorded prospectively and the study population was stratified by the timing of radiotherapy. Complications were analyzed following first- and second-stage reconstruction. The Spear-Baker classification of capsular contracture was modified for irradiated devices. Reconstructive failure was defined as nonelective removal of a breast prosthesis. Results: AlloDerm-assisted prosthetic reconstruction was performed in 289 women (428 breasts). After first-stage reconstruction, clinically significant capsular contracture rates (grade III/IV) were higher in the radiation therapy during expansion group and in the radiation therapy before mastectomy group compared with the no-radiation therapy group. Three hundred fiftythree breasts (85.9 percent) successfully underwent second-stage reconstruction, with a median follow-up of 15.2 months. Of those 353 breasts, clinically significant capsular contracture (grade III/IV) was highest in the radiation therapy during expansion group. More often than in the other groups, the radiation therapy during expansion group failed two-stage reconstruction and required flaps in addition or as replacement. Conclusions: In AlloDerm-assisted prosthetic breast reconstruction, irradiated devices demonstrated higher rates of clinically significant capsular contracture following the first stage. These rates declined considerably on completion of reconstruction, with prostheses irradiated during expansion still having the highest frequency of clinically significant capsular contracture. With the follow- up reported, irradiated devices failed breast reconstruction less frequently and required autologous tissue less often than has been historically reported without acellular dermal matrix.
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