Two-photon fluorescence vascular bioimaging with new bioconjugate probes selective toward the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2

Carolina D. Andrade, Ciceron O. Yanez, Hyo Yang Ahn, Takeo Urakami, Mykhailo V. Bondar, Masanobu Komatsu, Kevin D. Belfield

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


We report the synthesis and characterization of two amine reactive fluorescent dyes with efficient two-photon absorption (2PA) properties and high fluorescence quantum yields. Bioconjugation of these dyes with the DC-101 antibody proved to be useful for selectively imaging the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) in cells expressing this receptor in vitro and in "whole" mounted excised tumors (ex vivo) by two-photon fluorescence microscopy (2PFM). The penetration depths reached within the tumors by 2PFM was over 800 μm. In addition, the concentration of dye required for incubation of these bioconjugates was in the picomolar domain, the probes possessed very good photostability, and the 2PFM setup did not require any additional means of increasing the collection efficiencies of fluorescent photons to achieve the relatively deep tissue imaging that was realized, due, in large part, to the favorable photophysical properties of the new probes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2060-2071
Number of pages12
JournalBioconjugate Chemistry
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 19 2011
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Bioengineering
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Organic Chemistry

Cite this