To characterize latent classes of diagnostic and/or treatment procedures among hospitalized U.S. adults, 18–64 years, with primary diagnosis of TBI from 2004–2014 Nationwide Inpatient Samples, latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 10 procedure groups and differences between latent classes on injury, patient, hospital and healthcare utilization outcome characteristics were modeled using multivariable regression. Using 266,586 eligible records, LCA resulted in two classes of hospitalizations, namely, class I (n = 217,988) (mostly non-surgical) and class II (n = 48,598) (mostly surgical). Whereas orthopedic procedures were equally likely among latent classes, skin-related, physical medicine and rehabilitation procedures as well as behavioral health procedures were more likely among class I, and other types of procedures were more likely among class II. Class II patients were more likely to have moderate-to-severe TBI, to be admitted on weekends, to urban, medium-to-large hospitals in Midwestern, Southern or Western regions, and less likely to be > 30 years, female or non-White. Class II patients were also less likely to be discharged home and necessitated longer hospital stays and greater hospitalization charges. Surgery appears to distinguish two classes of hospitalized patients with TBI with divergent healthcare needs, informing the planning of healthcare services in this target population.
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