Turmeric means “yellow” in Bengali: Lead chromate pigments added to turmeric threaten public health across Bangladesh

Jenna E. Forsyth, Syeda Nurunnahar, Sheikh Shariful Islam, Musa Baker, Dalia Yeasmin, M. Saiful Islam, Mahbubur Rahman, Scott Fendorf, Nicole M. Ardoin, Peter John Winch, Stephen P. Luby

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Adulteration is a growing food safety concern worldwide. Previous studies have implicated turmeric as a source of lead (Pb) exposure due to the addition of lead chromate (PbCrO4), a yellow pigment used to enhance brightness. We aimed to assess the practice of adding yellow pigments to turmeric and producer- consumer- and regulatory-factors affecting this practice across the supply chain in Bangladesh. We identified and visited the nine major turmeric-producing districts of Bangladesh as well as two districts with minimal turmeric production. In each district, we conducted semi-structured interviews and informal observations with individuals involved in the production, consumption, and regulation of turmeric. We explored perceptions of and preferences for turmeric quality. We collected samples of yellow pigments and turmeric from the most-frequented wholesale and retail markets. We collected samples of turmeric, pigments, dust, and soil from turmeric polishing mills to assess evidence of adulteration. Interviews were analyzed through an inductive, thematic coding process, with attention focused on perceptions of and preferences for turmeric quality. Samples were analyzed for Pb and chromium (Cr) concentrations via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and x-ray fluorescence. In total, we interviewed 152 individuals from across the supply chain and collected 524 samples of turmeric, pigments, dust, and soil (Table S3, Table S4). Turmeric Pb and Cr concentrations were highest in Dhaka and Munshiganj districts, with maximum turmeric powder Pb concentrations of 1152 μg/g, compared to 690 μg/g in the 9 major turmeric-producing districts. We found evidence of PbCrO4-based yellow pigment adulteration in 7 of the 9 major turmeric-producing districts. Soil samples from polishing mills contained a maximum of 4257 μg/g Pb and yellow pigments contained 2–10% Pb by weight with an average Pb:Cr molar ratio of 1.3. Turmeric wholesalers reported that the practice of adding yellow pigments to dried turmeric root during polishing began more than 30 years ago and continues today, primarily driven by consumer preferences for colorful yellow curries. Farmers stated that merchants are able to sell otherwise poor-quality roots and increase their profits by asking polishers to adulterate with yellow pigments. Adulterating turmeric with lead chromate poses significant risks to human health and development. The results from this study indicate that PbCrO4 is being added to turmeric by polishers, who are unaware of its neurotoxic effects, in order to satisfy wholesalers who are driven by consumer demand for yellow roots. We recommend immediate intervention that engages turmeric producers and consumers to address this public health crisis and ensure a future with Pb-free turmeric.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number108722
JournalEnvironmental research
Volume179
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2019

Fingerprint

Curcuma
Curcumin
Bangladesh
chromate
Public health
Pigments
public health
pigment
Public Health
Chromium
Polishing
chromium
Soils
Supply chains
Dust
mill
dust
lead chromate
Food safety
Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

Keywords

  • Bangladesh
  • Food safety
  • Lead chromate
  • Lead exposure
  • Turmeric

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Environmental Science(all)

Cite this

Forsyth, J. E., Nurunnahar, S., Islam, S. S., Baker, M., Yeasmin, D., Islam, M. S., ... Luby, S. P. (2019). Turmeric means “yellow” in Bengali: Lead chromate pigments added to turmeric threaten public health across Bangladesh. Environmental research, 179, [108722]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2019.108722

Turmeric means “yellow” in Bengali : Lead chromate pigments added to turmeric threaten public health across Bangladesh. / Forsyth, Jenna E.; Nurunnahar, Syeda; Islam, Sheikh Shariful; Baker, Musa; Yeasmin, Dalia; Islam, M. Saiful; Rahman, Mahbubur; Fendorf, Scott; Ardoin, Nicole M.; Winch, Peter John; Luby, Stephen P.

In: Environmental research, Vol. 179, 108722, 01.12.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Forsyth, JE, Nurunnahar, S, Islam, SS, Baker, M, Yeasmin, D, Islam, MS, Rahman, M, Fendorf, S, Ardoin, NM, Winch, PJ & Luby, SP 2019, 'Turmeric means “yellow” in Bengali: Lead chromate pigments added to turmeric threaten public health across Bangladesh', Environmental research, vol. 179, 108722. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2019.108722
Forsyth, Jenna E. ; Nurunnahar, Syeda ; Islam, Sheikh Shariful ; Baker, Musa ; Yeasmin, Dalia ; Islam, M. Saiful ; Rahman, Mahbubur ; Fendorf, Scott ; Ardoin, Nicole M. ; Winch, Peter John ; Luby, Stephen P. / Turmeric means “yellow” in Bengali : Lead chromate pigments added to turmeric threaten public health across Bangladesh. In: Environmental research. 2019 ; Vol. 179.
@article{ebe905b49bde4cf7b8319416159249b5,
title = "Turmeric means “yellow” in Bengali: Lead chromate pigments added to turmeric threaten public health across Bangladesh",
abstract = "Adulteration is a growing food safety concern worldwide. Previous studies have implicated turmeric as a source of lead (Pb) exposure due to the addition of lead chromate (PbCrO4), a yellow pigment used to enhance brightness. We aimed to assess the practice of adding yellow pigments to turmeric and producer- consumer- and regulatory-factors affecting this practice across the supply chain in Bangladesh. We identified and visited the nine major turmeric-producing districts of Bangladesh as well as two districts with minimal turmeric production. In each district, we conducted semi-structured interviews and informal observations with individuals involved in the production, consumption, and regulation of turmeric. We explored perceptions of and preferences for turmeric quality. We collected samples of yellow pigments and turmeric from the most-frequented wholesale and retail markets. We collected samples of turmeric, pigments, dust, and soil from turmeric polishing mills to assess evidence of adulteration. Interviews were analyzed through an inductive, thematic coding process, with attention focused on perceptions of and preferences for turmeric quality. Samples were analyzed for Pb and chromium (Cr) concentrations via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and x-ray fluorescence. In total, we interviewed 152 individuals from across the supply chain and collected 524 samples of turmeric, pigments, dust, and soil (Table S3, Table S4). Turmeric Pb and Cr concentrations were highest in Dhaka and Munshiganj districts, with maximum turmeric powder Pb concentrations of 1152 μg/g, compared to 690 μg/g in the 9 major turmeric-producing districts. We found evidence of PbCrO4-based yellow pigment adulteration in 7 of the 9 major turmeric-producing districts. Soil samples from polishing mills contained a maximum of 4257 μg/g Pb and yellow pigments contained 2–10{\%} Pb by weight with an average Pb:Cr molar ratio of 1.3. Turmeric wholesalers reported that the practice of adding yellow pigments to dried turmeric root during polishing began more than 30 years ago and continues today, primarily driven by consumer preferences for colorful yellow curries. Farmers stated that merchants are able to sell otherwise poor-quality roots and increase their profits by asking polishers to adulterate with yellow pigments. Adulterating turmeric with lead chromate poses significant risks to human health and development. The results from this study indicate that PbCrO4 is being added to turmeric by polishers, who are unaware of its neurotoxic effects, in order to satisfy wholesalers who are driven by consumer demand for yellow roots. We recommend immediate intervention that engages turmeric producers and consumers to address this public health crisis and ensure a future with Pb-free turmeric.",
keywords = "Bangladesh, Food safety, Lead chromate, Lead exposure, Turmeric",
author = "Forsyth, {Jenna E.} and Syeda Nurunnahar and Islam, {Sheikh Shariful} and Musa Baker and Dalia Yeasmin and Islam, {M. Saiful} and Mahbubur Rahman and Scott Fendorf and Ardoin, {Nicole M.} and Winch, {Peter John} and Luby, {Stephen P.}",
year = "2019",
month = "12",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.envres.2019.108722",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "179",
journal = "Environmental Research",
issn = "0013-9351",
publisher = "Academic Press Inc.",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Turmeric means “yellow” in Bengali

T2 - Lead chromate pigments added to turmeric threaten public health across Bangladesh

AU - Forsyth, Jenna E.

AU - Nurunnahar, Syeda

AU - Islam, Sheikh Shariful

AU - Baker, Musa

AU - Yeasmin, Dalia

AU - Islam, M. Saiful

AU - Rahman, Mahbubur

AU - Fendorf, Scott

AU - Ardoin, Nicole M.

AU - Winch, Peter John

AU - Luby, Stephen P.

PY - 2019/12/1

Y1 - 2019/12/1

N2 - Adulteration is a growing food safety concern worldwide. Previous studies have implicated turmeric as a source of lead (Pb) exposure due to the addition of lead chromate (PbCrO4), a yellow pigment used to enhance brightness. We aimed to assess the practice of adding yellow pigments to turmeric and producer- consumer- and regulatory-factors affecting this practice across the supply chain in Bangladesh. We identified and visited the nine major turmeric-producing districts of Bangladesh as well as two districts with minimal turmeric production. In each district, we conducted semi-structured interviews and informal observations with individuals involved in the production, consumption, and regulation of turmeric. We explored perceptions of and preferences for turmeric quality. We collected samples of yellow pigments and turmeric from the most-frequented wholesale and retail markets. We collected samples of turmeric, pigments, dust, and soil from turmeric polishing mills to assess evidence of adulteration. Interviews were analyzed through an inductive, thematic coding process, with attention focused on perceptions of and preferences for turmeric quality. Samples were analyzed for Pb and chromium (Cr) concentrations via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and x-ray fluorescence. In total, we interviewed 152 individuals from across the supply chain and collected 524 samples of turmeric, pigments, dust, and soil (Table S3, Table S4). Turmeric Pb and Cr concentrations were highest in Dhaka and Munshiganj districts, with maximum turmeric powder Pb concentrations of 1152 μg/g, compared to 690 μg/g in the 9 major turmeric-producing districts. We found evidence of PbCrO4-based yellow pigment adulteration in 7 of the 9 major turmeric-producing districts. Soil samples from polishing mills contained a maximum of 4257 μg/g Pb and yellow pigments contained 2–10% Pb by weight with an average Pb:Cr molar ratio of 1.3. Turmeric wholesalers reported that the practice of adding yellow pigments to dried turmeric root during polishing began more than 30 years ago and continues today, primarily driven by consumer preferences for colorful yellow curries. Farmers stated that merchants are able to sell otherwise poor-quality roots and increase their profits by asking polishers to adulterate with yellow pigments. Adulterating turmeric with lead chromate poses significant risks to human health and development. The results from this study indicate that PbCrO4 is being added to turmeric by polishers, who are unaware of its neurotoxic effects, in order to satisfy wholesalers who are driven by consumer demand for yellow roots. We recommend immediate intervention that engages turmeric producers and consumers to address this public health crisis and ensure a future with Pb-free turmeric.

AB - Adulteration is a growing food safety concern worldwide. Previous studies have implicated turmeric as a source of lead (Pb) exposure due to the addition of lead chromate (PbCrO4), a yellow pigment used to enhance brightness. We aimed to assess the practice of adding yellow pigments to turmeric and producer- consumer- and regulatory-factors affecting this practice across the supply chain in Bangladesh. We identified and visited the nine major turmeric-producing districts of Bangladesh as well as two districts with minimal turmeric production. In each district, we conducted semi-structured interviews and informal observations with individuals involved in the production, consumption, and regulation of turmeric. We explored perceptions of and preferences for turmeric quality. We collected samples of yellow pigments and turmeric from the most-frequented wholesale and retail markets. We collected samples of turmeric, pigments, dust, and soil from turmeric polishing mills to assess evidence of adulteration. Interviews were analyzed through an inductive, thematic coding process, with attention focused on perceptions of and preferences for turmeric quality. Samples were analyzed for Pb and chromium (Cr) concentrations via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and x-ray fluorescence. In total, we interviewed 152 individuals from across the supply chain and collected 524 samples of turmeric, pigments, dust, and soil (Table S3, Table S4). Turmeric Pb and Cr concentrations were highest in Dhaka and Munshiganj districts, with maximum turmeric powder Pb concentrations of 1152 μg/g, compared to 690 μg/g in the 9 major turmeric-producing districts. We found evidence of PbCrO4-based yellow pigment adulteration in 7 of the 9 major turmeric-producing districts. Soil samples from polishing mills contained a maximum of 4257 μg/g Pb and yellow pigments contained 2–10% Pb by weight with an average Pb:Cr molar ratio of 1.3. Turmeric wholesalers reported that the practice of adding yellow pigments to dried turmeric root during polishing began more than 30 years ago and continues today, primarily driven by consumer preferences for colorful yellow curries. Farmers stated that merchants are able to sell otherwise poor-quality roots and increase their profits by asking polishers to adulterate with yellow pigments. Adulterating turmeric with lead chromate poses significant risks to human health and development. The results from this study indicate that PbCrO4 is being added to turmeric by polishers, who are unaware of its neurotoxic effects, in order to satisfy wholesalers who are driven by consumer demand for yellow roots. We recommend immediate intervention that engages turmeric producers and consumers to address this public health crisis and ensure a future with Pb-free turmeric.

KW - Bangladesh

KW - Food safety

KW - Lead chromate

KW - Lead exposure

KW - Turmeric

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85072316857&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85072316857&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.envres.2019.108722

DO - 10.1016/j.envres.2019.108722

M3 - Article

C2 - 31550596

AN - SCOPUS:85072316857

VL - 179

JO - Environmental Research

JF - Environmental Research

SN - 0013-9351

M1 - 108722

ER -