Inflammation has been implicated in the development of many human epithelial cancers, including those of the stomach, lung, colon, and prostate. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a potent pleiotropic, proinflammatory cytokine produced by many cells in response to injury and inflammation. Here, we show that TNF-α exposure results in increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), with a concomitant increase in the production of 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine, a marker for oxidative DNA damage, in human lung bronchial epithelial cells. The source of the ROS in TNF-α-treated cells was determined by both pharmacologic and small interfering RNA (siRNA) strategies to be spermine oxidase (SMO/PAOh1). SMO/PAOh1 oxidizes spermine into spermidine, 3-aminopropanal, and H2O2. Inhibition of TNF-α-induced SMO/PAOh1 activity with MDL 72,527 or with a targeted siRNA prevented ROS production and oxidative DNA damage. Further, similar induction in SMO/PAOhI is observed with treatment of another inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6. The data are consistent with a model that directly links inflammation and DNA damage through the production of H2O2 by SMO/PAOhI. Further, these results suggest a common mechanism by which inflammation from multiple sources can lead to the mutagenic changes necessary for the development and progression of epithelial cancers.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research