The incidence of tuberculosis in the United States is on the rise, in part, because of its association with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Genitourinary tuberculosis remains one of the most common forms of secondary or extrapulmonary disease. We present an unusual case of tuberculous epididymitis with extensive retroperitoneal and mediastinal spread. The possible routes of dissemination, as well as the efficacy of antimycobacterial therapy in the management of tuberculous epididymitis, are discussed and the relevant literature is reviewed.
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