Tuberculosis incidence among contacts of active pulmonary tuberculosis

M. Cailleaux-Cezar, D. De, G. M. Xavier, C. L.G. De Salles, F. C.Q. De Mello, A. Ruffino-Netto, J. E. Golub, A. Efron, R. E. Chaisson, Marcus B. Conde

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Treatment of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) in Brazil is recommended only in the case of contacts of pulmonary smear-positive TB patients aged =≤15 years with a tuberculin skin test (TST) ≥ 10 mm and no previous bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination or with a TST ≥ 15 mm regardless of previous BCG vaccination. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the 2-year incidence and predictors of TB among contacts who did not meet the Brazilian criteria for LTBI treatment. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. Contacts aged between 12 and 15 years and those aged >15 years who did not meet the Brazilian criteria for LTBI treatment were enrolled in the study. RESULTS: TB incidence was 3.2% (22/667), with an estimated TB rate of 1649 per 100000 population. Risk of TB was greater among the 349 contacts with TST ≥ 5 mm (5.4%) compared to the 318 contacts with TST < 5 mm (0.9%; RR 6.04, 95%CI 1.7-20.6). CONCLUSION: The high incidence of TB among contacts who did not meet the Brazilian criteria for LTBI treatment strongly suggests that these criteria should be reviewed. Furthermore, even among BCG-vaccinated contacts, TST induration ≥5 mm was the only variable that predicted the development of TB disease within 2 years.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)190-195
Number of pages6
JournalInternational Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Volume13
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2009

Keywords

  • LTBI
  • Pulmonary tuberculosis
  • Tuberculin test

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Infectious Diseases

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