Tuberculosis in elephants in North America

Susan K. Mikota, R. Scott Larsen, Richard J. Montali

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


Within the past 4 years, tuberculosis (TB) has emerged as a disease of concern in elephants. The population of elephants in North America is declining [Wiese, 1997], and transmissible diseases such as TB may exacerbate this trend. Guidelines for the Control of Tuberculosis in Elephants, which require the screening of all elephants for TB, were instituted in 1997 [USDA, 1997; 2000]. Between August 1996 and May 2000, Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated from 18 of 539 elephants in North America, indicating an estimated prevalence of 3.3%. Isolation of the TB orga nism by culture is the currently recommended test to establish a diagnosis of TB; however, culture requires 8 weeks. Further research is essential to validate other diagnostic tests and treatment protocols. Zoo Biol 19:393-403, 2000.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)393-403
Number of pages11
JournalZoo Biology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Jan 1 2000


  • Bacterial disease
  • Elephas maximus
  • Loxodonta africana
  • Tuberculosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology


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