Tuberculosis along the continuum of HIV care in a cohort of adolescents living with HIV in Ethiopia

Degu Jerene, W. Abebe, K. Taye, P. G. Suarez, Y. Feleke, I. Hallström, Andrea J Ruff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

SETTING: Eight health facilities in Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE: To determine tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates and associated factors among adolescents living with the human immunodeficiency virus (ALHIV). DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study. Adolescents enrolled in HIV care between January 2005 and 31 December 2013 constituted the study population. The main outcome variable was TB diagnosis during follow-up. Baseline World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stage, CD4 count, previous history of TB and use of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) were the main independent variables. We estimated TB incidence rates as incident cases per 100 person-years of observation (PYO). Cox regression analysis was used to control for confounders. RESULTS: Of the 1221 adolescents screened, 1072 were studied; 60.1% were girls. TB incidence rate was 16.32 per 100 PYO during pre-antiretroviral therapy (pre-ART) follow-up but declined to 2.25 per 100 PYO after initiation of ART. Advanced WHO clinical stage (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.71, 95%CI 1.69-4.33) and CD4 count <350 cells/μl (aHR 2.28, 95%CI 1.10-4.81) predicted TB incidence in the pre-ART cohort. IPT use was associated with a significant reduction in TB incidence in the ART cohort, but not in the pre-ART group. CONCLUSION: Although TB was a significant problem in ALHIV, timely administration of ART and IPT had a significant protective effect.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalInternational Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Volume21
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017

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Ethiopia
Continuity of Patient Care
Tuberculosis
HIV
Isoniazid
Incidence
Observation
CD4 Lymphocyte Count
Therapeutics
Health Facilities
Group Psychotherapy
Cohort Studies
Retrospective Studies
Regression Analysis

Keywords

  • INH preventive therapy
  • Pre-ART
  • TB incidence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Tuberculosis along the continuum of HIV care in a cohort of adolescents living with HIV in Ethiopia. / Jerene, Degu; Abebe, W.; Taye, K.; Suarez, P. G.; Feleke, Y.; Hallström, I.; Ruff, Andrea J.

In: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Vol. 21, No. 1, 01.01.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Jerene, Degu ; Abebe, W. ; Taye, K. ; Suarez, P. G. ; Feleke, Y. ; Hallström, I. ; Ruff, Andrea J. / Tuberculosis along the continuum of HIV care in a cohort of adolescents living with HIV in Ethiopia. In: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 2017 ; Vol. 21, No. 1.
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abstract = "SETTING: Eight health facilities in Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE: To determine tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates and associated factors among adolescents living with the human immunodeficiency virus (ALHIV). DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study. Adolescents enrolled in HIV care between January 2005 and 31 December 2013 constituted the study population. The main outcome variable was TB diagnosis during follow-up. Baseline World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stage, CD4 count, previous history of TB and use of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) were the main independent variables. We estimated TB incidence rates as incident cases per 100 person-years of observation (PYO). Cox regression analysis was used to control for confounders. RESULTS: Of the 1221 adolescents screened, 1072 were studied; 60.1{\%} were girls. TB incidence rate was 16.32 per 100 PYO during pre-antiretroviral therapy (pre-ART) follow-up but declined to 2.25 per 100 PYO after initiation of ART. Advanced WHO clinical stage (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.71, 95{\%}CI 1.69-4.33) and CD4 count <350 cells/μl (aHR 2.28, 95{\%}CI 1.10-4.81) predicted TB incidence in the pre-ART cohort. IPT use was associated with a significant reduction in TB incidence in the ART cohort, but not in the pre-ART group. CONCLUSION: Although TB was a significant problem in ALHIV, timely administration of ART and IPT had a significant protective effect.",
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