Purpose: To assess the feasibility of administering troxacitabine, a unique L-nucleoside that is not a substrate for deoxycytidine deaminase-mediated catabolism, as a 30-minute intravenous (IV) infusion daily for 5 days. Patients and Methods: Patients with advanced solid malignancies were treated with escalating doses of troxacitabine as a 30-minute IV infusion daily for 5 days. Plasma and urine sampling was performed to characterize the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of troxacitabine. Results: Thirty-nine patients received 124 courses of troxacitabine at eight dose levels ranging from 0.12 to 1.8 mg/m2/d. Severe neutropenia that was protracted (> 5 days) and/or associated with fever, and skin rashes were consistently experienced by heavily (HP) and minimally pretreated (MP) patients at doses exceeding 1.2 and 1.5 mg/m2/d, respectively. At troxacitabine doses ≥ 1.2 mg/m2/d, treatment was often delayed 1 additional week for complete resolution of hematologic effects, resulting in lengthening of the treatment interval from every 3 to 4 weeks. Skin rash, palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia, and thrombocytopenia were also observed and were occasionally severe, particularly at the highest doses. A patient with metastatic ocular melanoma experienced a partial response. Pharmacokinetics of troxacitabine were dose-independent; mean (SD) values for the volume of distribution at steady-state and clearance (Cs) were 60 (32) L and 161 (33) mL/min, respectively, on day 1. After treatment on the fifth day, terminal half-life values averaged 39 (63) hours, and Cs was reduced by approximately 20%, averaging 127 (27) mL/min. The principal mode of drug elimination was renal. Conclusion: Recommended doses for phase II studies of troxacitabine as a 30-minute infusion daily for 5 days every 4 weeks are 1.5 and 1.2 mg/m2/d for MP and HP patients, respectively. Broad disease-directed evaluations of troxacitabine on this schedule and possibly less frequent schedules are warranted.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research