Trityl radicals in perfluorocarbon emulsions as stable, sensitive, and biocompatible oximetry probes

Ilirian Dhimitruka, Yasmin Alsayed Alzarie, Craig Hemann, Alexandre Samouilov, Jay L. Zweier

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

EPR oximetry with the use of trityl radicals can enable sensitive O2 measurement in biological cells and tissues. However, in vitro cellular and in vivo biological applications are limited by rapid trityl probe degradation or biological clearance and the need to enhance probe O2 sensitivity. We synthesized novel perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsions, ∼200 nm droplet size, containing esterified perchlorinated triphenyl methyl (PTM) radicals dispersed in physiological aqueous buffers. These formulations exhibit excellent EPR signal stability, over 20-fold greater than free PTM probes, with high oxygen sensitivity ∼17 mG/mmHg enabling pO2 measurement in aqueous solutions or cell suspensions with sensitivity >0.5 mmHg. Thus, PFC-PTM probes hold great promise to enable combined O2 delivery and sensing as needed to restore or enhance tissue oxygenation in disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5685-5688
Number of pages4
JournalBioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Volume26
Issue number23
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2016
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Cellular respiration
  • EPR oximetry
  • Oxygen sensitivity
  • Perchlorotriphenyl methyl radicals
  • Perfluorocarbon emulsions

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Organic Chemistry

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