Triple repetition time saturation transfer (TRiST) 31P spectroscopy for measuring human creatine kinase reaction kinetics

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Human cardiac phosphorus MR saturation transfer experiments to quantify creatine kinase forward rate constants (kf) have previously been performed at 1.5 T. Such experiments could benefit from increased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and spectral resolution at 3 T. At 1.5 T, the four-angle saturation transfer method was applied with low-angle adiabatic pulses and surface coils. However, low-angle adiabatic pulses are potentially problematic above 1.5 T due to bandwidth limitations, power requirements, power deposition, and intrapulse spin-spin relaxation. For localized metabolite spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) measurements, a dual repetition time approach with adiabatic half-passage pulses was recently introduced to solve these problems at 3 T. Because the saturation transfer experiment requires a T1 measurement performed while one reacting moiety is saturated, we adapt the dual repetition time approach to measure kf using a triple repetition time saturation transfer (TRiST) method. A new pulsed saturation scheme with reduced sensitivity to static magnetic field inhomogeneity and compatibility with cardiac triggering is also presented. TRiST measurements of kf are validated in human calf muscle against conventional saturation transfer and found to agree within 3%. The first 3-T TRiST measurements of creatine kinase kf in the human calf (n = 6), chest muscle, and heart (n = 8) are 0.26 ± 0.04 s-1, 0.23 ± 0.03 s-1, and 0.32 ± 0.07 s-1, respectively, consistent with prior 1.5 T values.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1493-1501
Number of pages9
JournalMagnetic resonance in medicine
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2010


  • 3 tesla
  • Creatine kinase
  • High-energy phosphate
  • Human heart
  • Metabolism
  • Reaction rate
  • Saturation pulses
  • Saturation transfer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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