Trimodal gadolinium-gold microcapsules containing pancreatic islet cells restore normoglycemia in diabetic mice and can be tracked by using US, CT, and positive-contrast MR imaging

Dian R. Arifin, Christopher M. Long, Assaf A. Gilad, Christophe Alric, Stéphane Roux, Olivier Tillement, Thomas W. Link, Aravind Arepally, Jeff W.M. Bulte

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Purpose: To develop microcapsules that immunoprotect pancreatic islet cells for treatment of type I diabetes and enable multimodal cellular imaging of transplanted islet cells. Materials and Methods: All animal experiments were approved by the institutional animal care and use committee. Gold nanoparticles functionalized with DTDTPA (dithiolated diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid):gadolinium chelates (GG) were coencapsulated with pancreatic islet cells by using protamine sulfate as a clinical-grade alginate cross linker. Conventional poly- L-lysine-cross-linked microcapsules and unencapsulated islets were included as controls. The viability and glucose responsiveness of islet cells were assessed in vitro, and in vivo insulin (C-peptide) secretion was monitored for 6 weeks in (streptozotocin-induced) diabetic mice with (n = 7) or without (n = 8) intraabdominally engrafted islet cells. Five nondiabetic mice were included as controls. Differences between samples were calculated by using a nonparametric Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney method. To adjust for multiple comparisons, a significance level of P < .01 was chosen. Generalized estimating equations were used to model cell function over time. Three mice with engrafted capsules were imaged in vivo with high-field-strength (9.4-T) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, micro-computed tomography (CT), and 40-MHz ultrasonography (US). Results: Encapsulated human pancreatic islets were functional in vitro for at least 2 weeks after encapsulation. Blood glucose levels in the diabetic mice transplanted with GG-labeled encapsulated mouse b TC6 insulinoma cells returned to normal within 1 week after transplantation, and normoglycemia was sustained for at least 6 weeks without the use of immunosuppressive drugs. GG microcapsules could be readily visualized with positive-contrast high-field-strength MR imaging, micro-CT, and US both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion: Cell encapsulation with GG provides a means of trimodal noninvasive tracking of engrafted cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)790-798
Number of pages9
JournalRADIOLOGY
Volume260
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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