Purpose: To characterize temporal trends and regional variance in retinal imaging utilization in the United States Medicare fee-for-service population from 2012–2016. Design: Cross-sectional, retrospective database analysis. Methods: This study addresses office or operating-room based retinal imaging. Our study population included retina specialists, defined as ophthalmologists performing either intravitreal anti–vascular endothelial growth factor injections or posterior segment laser photocoagulation and no neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser capsulotomy. We recorded fundus photography, optical coherence tomography (OCT), intravenous fluorescein angiography (IVFA), indocyanine-green angiography, and ophthalmic ultrasound (B-scan) billed in the Medicare fee-for-service population from 2012–2016. Imaging obtained on any platform or device was eligible for inclusion (eg, posterior pole imaging vs ultrawidefield imaging). The main outcome measure was the relative utilization of retinal imaging modalities. Results: National relative utilization of OCT increased from 61.5% in 2012 to 70.5% in 2016 (P < .001), while IVFA fell from 20.9% to 15.1% over the same interval (P < .001). Fundus photography decreased from 14.6% in 2012 to 11.7% in 2016 (P < .001). By 2016, the Midwest region had the highest relative utilization of OCT (75.2%) and lowest of IVFA (12.0%), while the West region had the lowest OCT (68.4%) and highest IVFA (17.0%). Conclusions: Among retina specialists, OCT usage increased while the utilization of fundus photography and IVFA has declined. The Midwest region had the highest utilization of OCT and lowest of IVFA.
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