It has been suggested that the post-liver transplantation (LT) survival rate of patients with hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) has declined in recent years. To compare the outcome of LT in patients with HCV at various time intervals between 1991 and 2001, we used United Network for Organ Sharing data to compare the post-LT survival of adult patients (age > 18 years) with HCV with those without HCV. Of the 37,101 patients who underwent LT during the study period, 28,193 patients (HCV 7,459 and 20,734 non HCV) were eligible for the study. On the basis of the time of transplantation, patients were divided into 3 groups: 1991-1993 (period 1), 1994-1997 (period 2), and 1998-2001 (period 3). The patient and graft survival rates were adjusted for other known confounding variables that influenced outcomes. The 3-year patient survival rate was lower in HCV patients compared with non-HCV recipients (78.5% vs. 81.4%, hazard ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval 1.05-1.23, P = 0.001). The graft (72.8%), 71.0%, and 69.8%) and patient (77.4%, 79.6%, and 78.5%) survival of HCV patients remained unchanged during study periods 1-3, respectively. However, the graft and patient survival has remained unchanged between 1991 and 2001 in HCV recipients, but during the same period, there was a great improvement in survival among non-HCV recipients.
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