Trends in gastroenteritis-associated mortality in the United States, 1985-2005: Variations by ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes

Jyotsna S. Jagai, Genee S. Smith, Judith E. Schmid, Timothy J. Wade

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Background: Trends in gastroenteritis-associated mortality are changing over time with development of antibiotic resistant strains of certain pathogens, improved diagnostic methods, and changing healthcare. In 1999, ICD-10 coding was introduced for mortality records which can also affect trends. We assess trends in gastroenteritis-associated mortality and changes associated with coding. Methods: Trends in gastroenteritis-associated mortality rates in the United States were examined using the National Center for Health Statistics Multiple Cause-of-Death Mortality databases for 1985-2005. All deaths with the underlying cause or any contributing cause included gastroenteritis were included. Cases were selected based on ICD9 (pre-1999) and ICD10 (1999-2005) codes and all analyses were stratified by ICD usage. Annual trends in age adjusted mortality rates were assessed using linear regression spline analysis. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Poisson regression adjusted for age group, sex, race, and region. Results: There were a total of 190,674 deaths related to gastroenteritis in the U.S. from 1985-2005 with an average of 9,080 per year. During this time the percent of deaths related to gastroenteritis more than tripled, increasing from 0.25% to 0.80% of all deaths. Though the time periods varied in length, we demonstrate a significant increase in slope from a 0.0054% annual increase during the period 1985-1998, when ICD-9 coding was used, to a 0.0550% annual increase during 1999-2005, when ICD-10 coding was used. For both time periods, the oldest age group (75+ years) demonstrated the highest risk of death due to gastroenteritis. Additionally, males demonstrated higher risk than females and blacks were at higher risk than whites for death due to gastroenteritis. Conclusions: This analysis demonstrates the public health burden of gastroenteritis-associated mortality in the United States and changes in trends due to change from ICD-9 to ICD-10 coding. The overall rate of gastroenteritis-associated mortality has more than tripled over the 21-year period from 1985 to 2005 and the primary burden of deaths due to gastroenteritis is in the elderly population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number211
JournalBMC Gastroenterology
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Gastroenteritis
  • Intestinal infections
  • Mortality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology


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