Treatment of fungal disease in the setting of neutropenia.

Thomas J. Walsh, Maria N. Gamaletsou

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Invasive fungal infections are important causes of morbidity and attributable mortality in neutropenic patients with hematological malignancies, myelodysplasia, and aplastic anemia. Successful risk-based strategies can be implemented for prophylaxis, empirical therapy, and preemptive therapy for the prevention and early treatment of invasive fungal infections in neutropenic hosts. The use of echinocandins for invasive candidiasis and voriconazole for invasive aspergillosis has significantly improved outcome. Recent studies demonstrate, however, that resistant fungal pathogens may emerge during the course of these antifungal interventions. Although triazole-resistant Candida spp. have been well described as causes of breakthrough candidemia, other organisms now pose a similar threat. Such organisms include echinocandin-resistant Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis species complex. The Mucorales, Fusarium spp., and Scedosporium spp. may emerge in the setting of voriconazole prophylaxis. The challenges of these emerging pathogens underscore the need for the development of new antifungal agents and strategies.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology


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