Transmural mechanics at left ventricular epicardial pacing site

Hiroshi Ashikaga, Jeffrey H. Omens, Neil B. Ingels, James W. Covell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Left ventricular (LV) epicardial pacing acutely reduces wall thickening at the pacing site. Because LV epicardial pacing also reduces transverse shear deformation, which is related to myocardial sheet shear, we hypothesized that impaired end-systolic wall thickening at the pacing site is due to reduction in myocardial sheet shear deformation, resulting in a reduced contribution of sheet shear to wall thickening. We also hypothesized that epicardial pacing would reverse the transmural mechanical activation sequence and thereby mitigate normal transmural deformation. To test these hypotheses, we investigated the effects of LV epicardial pacing on transmural fiber-sheet mechanics by determining three-dimensional finite deformation during normal atrioventricular conduction and LV epicardial pacing in the anterior wall of normal dog hearts in vivo. Our measurements indicate that impaired end-systolic wall thickening at the pacing site was not due to selective reduction of sheet shear, but rather resulted from overall depression of fiber-sheet deformation, and relative contributions of sheet strains to wall thickening were maintained. These findings suggest lack of effective end-systolic myocardial deformation at the pacing site, most likely because the pacing site initiates contraction significantly earlier than the rest of the ventricle. Epicardial pacing also induced reversal of the transmural mechanical activation sequence, which depressed sheet extension and wall thickening early in the cardiac cycle, whereas transverse shear and sheet shear deformation were not affected. These findings suggest that normal sheet extension and wall thickening immediately after activation may require normal transmural activation sequence, whereas sheet shear deformation may be determined by local anatomy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)H2401-H2407
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Issue number6 55-6
StatePublished - Jun 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Epicardial pacing
  • Fiber
  • Sheet
  • Transmural deformation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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