Transcutaneous immunization: A human vaccine delivery strategy using a patch

Gregory M. Glenn, David N. Taylor, Xiuru Li, Sarah Frankel, Andrew Montemarano, Carl R. Alving

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Transcutaneous immunization, a topical vaccine application, combines the advantages of needle-free delivery while targeting the immunologically rich milieu of the skin. In animal studies, this simple technique induces robust systemic and mucosal antibodies against vaccine antigens. Here, we demonstrate safe application of a patch containing heat-labile enterotoxin (LT, derived from Escherichia coli) to humans, resulting in robust LT-antibody responses. These findings indicate that TCI is feasible for human immunization, and suggest that TCI may enhance efficacy as well as improve vaccine delivery.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1403-1406
Number of pages4
JournalNature medicine
Issue number12
StatePublished - 2000

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)


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