Transcriptional regulation of cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein in the retinal pigment epithelium. A Role for the photoreceptor consensus element

B. N. Kennedy, S. Goldflam, M. A. Chang, P. Campochiaro, A. A. Davis, D. J. Zack, J. W. Crabb

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP) is abundantly expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and Muller cells of the retina, where it is thought to function in retinoid metabolism and visual pigment regeneration. Mutations in human CRALBP that destroy retinoid binding have been linked to autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa. To identify the DNA elements that regulate expression of the human CRALBP gene in the RPE, transient transfection studies were carried out with three CRALBP-expressing human RPE cell culture systems. The regions from -2089 to -1539 base pairs and from -243 to +80 base pairs demonstrated positive regulatory activity. Similar activity was not observed with cultured human breast, liver, or skin cells. Since sequence analysis of the -243 to +80 region identified the presence of two photoreceptor consensus element-1 (PCE-1) sites, elements that have been implicated in photoreceptor gens regulation, the role of these sequences in RPE expression was examined. Mutation of either PCE-1 site significantly reduced reporter activity, and mutation or deletion of both sites dramatically reduced activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift analysis with RPE nuclear extracts revealed two complexes that required intact PCE-1 sites. These studies also identified two identical sequences (GCAGGA) flanking PCE-1, termed the binding CRALBP element (BCE), that are also important for complex formation. Southwestern analysis with PCE- 1/BCEcontaining probes identified species with apparent masses near 90-100 and 31 kDa. These results begin to identify the regula- tory regions required for RPE expression of CRALBP and suggest that PCE-1-binding factor(s) may play a role in regulating RPE as well as photoreceptor gene expression.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5591-5598
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Issue number10
StatePublished - Mar 6 1998
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

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