Traditional and non-traditional risk factors for incident peripheral arterial disease among patients with chronic kidney disease

Jing Chen, Emile R. Mohler, Dawei Xie, Michael Shlipak, Raymond R. Townsend, Lawrence J. Appel, Akinlolu Ojo, Martin Schreiber, Lisa Nessel, Xiaoming Zhang, Dominic Raj, Louise Strauss, Claudia M. Lora, Mahboob Rahman, L. Lee Hamm, Jiang He

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: The risk of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is higher in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) compared with those without. However, reasons for this increased risk are not fully understood. Methods: We studied risk factors for incident PAD among 3169 participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. Patients with CKD aged 21-74 years were recruited between 2003 and 2008 and followed for a median of 6.3 years. Incident PAD was defined as a new onset anklebrachial index (ABI) of <0.9 or confirmed clinical PAD. Results: In a multivariate-adjusted model, older age, female sex, non-Hispanic Black, current smoking, diabetes, higher pulse pressure, lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate were significantly associated with the increased risk of incident PAD. After adjustment for these traditional risk factors as well as use of medications and CRIC Study clinic sites, the following baseline novel risk factors were significantly associated with risk of incident PAD [hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI) for a one standard deviation (SD) higher level]: log[C-reactive protein (CRP)] (1.16, 1.06-1.25, P < 0.001), white blood cell count (1.09, 1.01-1.18, P = 0.03), fibrinogen (1.15, 1.06-1.26, P = 0.002), log(myeloperoxidase) (1.12, 1.03-1.23, P = 0.01), uric acid (0.88, 0.80-0.97, P = 0.01), glycated hemoglobin (1.16, 1.05-1.27, P = 0.003), log (homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance) (1.21, 1.10-1.32, P < 0.001) and alkaline phosphatase (1.15, 1.07-1.24, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Among patients with CKD, inflammation, prothrombotic state, oxidative stress, glycated hemoglobin, insulin resistance and alkaline phosphatase are associated with an increased risk of PAD, independent of traditional risk factors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1145-1151
Number of pages7
JournalNephrology Dialysis Transplantation
Volume31
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2016
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Novel risk factors
  • Peripheral arterial disease
  • Traditional risk factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology
  • Transplantation

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