Tracking the molecular evolution of calcium permeability in a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

Marcela Lipovsek, Angélica Fierro, Edwin G. Pérez, Juan C. Boffi, Neil S. Millar, Paul A. Fuchs, Eleonora Katz, Ana Belén Elgoyhen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are a family of ligand-gated nonselective cationic channels that participate in fundamental physiological processes at both the central and the peripheral nervous system. The extent of calcium entry through ligand-gated ion channels defines their distinct functions. The α 9α 10 nicotinic cholinergic receptor, expressed in cochlear hair cells, is a peculiar member of the family as it shows differences in the extent of calcium permeability across species. In particular, mammalian α 9α 10 receptors are among the ligand-gated ion channels which exhibit the highest calcium selectivity. This acquired differential property provides the unique opportunity of studying how protein function was shaped along evolutionary history, by tracking its evolutionary record and experimentally defining the amino acid changes involved. We have applied a molecular evolution approach of ancestral sequence reconstruction, together with molecular dynamics simulations and an evolutionary-based mutagenesis strategy, in order to trace the molecular events that yielded a high calcium permeable nicotinic α 9α 10 mammalian receptor. Only three specific amino acid substitutions in the α 9 subunit were directly involved. These are located at the extracellular vestibule and at the exit of the channel pore and not at the transmembrane region 2 of the protein as previously thought. Moreover, we show that these three critical substitutions only increase calcium permeability in the context of the mammalian but not the avian receptor, stressing the relevance of overall protein structure on defining functional properties. These results highlight the importance of tracking evolutionarily acquired changes in protein sequence underlying fundamental functional properties of ligand-gated ion channels.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3250-3265
Number of pages16
JournalMolecular biology and evolution
Volume31
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2014

Keywords

  • calcium permeability
  • hearing
  • molecular evolution
  • nicotinic receptors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics

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