Objective: To determine whether a new surgical clamp reduces unfavorable postoperative outcomes. Methods: Patients with trachomatous trichiasis (TT) were randomized to surgery with standard bilamellar tarsal rotation (BLTR) instrumentation or the TT clamp and were followed up for 2 years. Main Outcome Measures: Postoperative TT, pyogenic granuloma formation, and eyelid contour abnormalities, combined and individually. Results:Atotal of 1917 participantswhohad surgery (3345 eyes) were enrolled. Rates of at least 1 unfavorable outcomewere similar for the participants who underwent surgery with the TT clamp and those who underwent surgery with standard BLTR (60.9% vs 63.0%, respectively; adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=0.88; 95% CI, 0.66-1.18). Granuloma was less common in the TT clamp arm than in the standard BLTR arm (16.8% vs 22.4%, respectively; AOR=0.67; 95% CI, 0.46-0.97). There was a trend toward increased postoperative TT in the TT clamp arm compared with the standard BLTR arm (43.2% vs 36.6%, respectively; AOR=1.36; 95% CI, 0.96-1.93). The TT clamp decreased the risk of mild eyelid contour abnormalities compared with standard BLTR (9.1% vs 13.3%, respectively; AOR=0.64; 95% CI, 0.42-0.97) and showed a trend for a decrease in moderate abnormalities (5.3% vs 7.8%, respectively; AOR=0.63; 95% CI, 0.39-1.01). Conclusions: Overall, rates of unfavorable outcomes were similar between groups. Although our results are similar to other programmatic settings, such high rates of unfavorable outcomes are unacceptable; future research is needed to identify ways to improve TT surgery outcomes. Application to Clinical Practice: A new clamp for TT surgery appears to offer protection against granuloma formation and some eyelid contour abnormalities, but it does not reduce postoperative TT.
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