Trachealess (Trh) regulates all tracheal genes during Drosophila embryogenesis

Se Yeon Chung, Cy Chavez, Deborah J. Andrew

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


The Drosophila trachea is a branched tubular epithelia that transports oxygen and other gases. . trachealess (. trh), which encodes a bHLH-PAS transcription factor, is among the first genes to be expressed in the cells that will form the trachea. In the absence of . trh, tracheal cells fail to invaginate to form tubes and remain on the embryo surface. Expression of many tracheal-specific genes depends on . trh, but all of the known targets have relatively minor phenotypes compared to loss of . trh, suggesting that there are additional targets. To identify uncharacterized transcriptional targets of Trh and to further understand the role of Trh in embryonic tracheal formation, we performed an in situ hybridization screen using a library of ~. 100 tracheal-expressed genes identified by the Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project (BDGP). Surprisingly, expression of every tracheal gene we tested was dependent on Trh, suggesting a major role for Trh in activation and maintenance of tracheal gene expression. A re-examination of the interdependence of the known early-expressed transcription factors, including . trh, . ventral veinless (. vvl) and . knirps/. knirps-related (. kni/. knrl), suggests a new model for how gene expression is controlled in the trachea, with . trh regulating expression of . vvl and . kni, but not vice versa. A pilot screen for the targets of Vvl and Kni/Knrl revealed that Vvl and Kni have only minor roles compared to Trh. Finally, genome-wide microarray experiments identified additional Trh targets and revealed that a variety of biological processes are affected by the loss of . trh.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)160-172
Number of pages13
JournalDevelopmental biology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 1 2011


  • Drosophila
  • Kni
  • Knirps
  • Trachea
  • Trachealess
  • Trh
  • Ventral veinless
  • Vvl

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Developmental Biology
  • Cell Biology


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