Testicular nuclear receptor 4 (TR4), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, plays important roles in metabolism, fertility and aging. The linkage of TR4 functions in cancer progression, however, remains unclear. Using three different mouse models, we found TR4 could prevent or delay prostate cancer (PCa)/prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia development. Knocking down TR4 in human RWPE1 and mouse mPrE normal prostate cells promoted tumorigenesis under carcinogen challenge, suggesting TR4 may play a suppressor role in PCa initiation. Mechanism dissection in both in vitro cell lines and in vivo mice studies found that knocking down TR4 led to increased DNA damage with altered DNA repair system that involved the modulation of ATM expression at the transcriptional level, and addition of ATM partially interrupted the TR4 small interfering RNA-induced tumorigenesis in cell transformation assays. Immunohistochemical staining in human PCa tissue microarrays revealed ATM expression is highly correlated with TR4 expression. Together, these results suggest TR4 may function as a tumor suppressor to prevent or delay prostate tumorigenesis via regulating ATM expression at the transcriptional level.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research