Toxoplasma gondii as a Risk Factor for Early-Onset Schizophrenia

Analysis of Filter Paper Blood Samples Obtained at Birth

Preben Bo Mortensen, Bent Nørgaard-Pedersen, Berit Lindum Waltoft, Tina L. Sørensen, David Hougaard, E. Fuller Torrey, Robert H Yolken

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Infections during fetal life or neonatal period, including infections with Toxoplasma gondii, may be associated with a risk for schizophrenia and other mental disorders. The objectives of this study were to study the association between serological markers for maternal and neonatal infection and the risk for schizophrenia, related psychoses, and affective disorders in a national cohort of newborns. Methods: This study was a cohort-based, case-control study combining data from national population registers and patient registers and a national neonatal screening biobank in Denmark. Patients included persons born in Denmark in 1981 or later followed up through 1999 with respect to inpatient or outpatient treatment for schizophrenia or related disorders (ICD-10 F2) or affective disorders (ICD-10 F3). Results: Toxoplasma gondii immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels corresponding to the upper quartile among control subjects were significantly associated with schizophrenia risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.79, p = .045) after adjustment for urbanicity of place of birth, year of birth, gender, and psychiatric diagnoses among first-degree relatives. There was no significant association between any marker of infection and other schizophrenia-like disorders or affective disorders. Conclusions: Our study supports an association between Toxoplasma gondii and early-onset schizophrenia. Further studies are needed to establish if the association is causal and if it generalizes to cases with onset after age 18.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)688-693
Number of pages6
JournalBiological Psychiatry
Volume61
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2007

Fingerprint

Toxoplasma
Schizophrenia
Parturition
Mood Disorders
International Classification of Diseases
Denmark
Mental Disorders
Infection
Odds Ratio
Neonatal Screening
Toxoplasmosis
Age of Onset
Psychotic Disorders
Registries
Case-Control Studies
Inpatients
Outpatients
Immunoglobulin G
Mothers
Newborn Infant

Keywords

  • Affective disorder
  • neonatal
  • psychosis
  • schizophrenia
  • Toxoplasma gondii

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biological Psychiatry

Cite this

Toxoplasma gondii as a Risk Factor for Early-Onset Schizophrenia : Analysis of Filter Paper Blood Samples Obtained at Birth. / Mortensen, Preben Bo; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Waltoft, Berit Lindum; Sørensen, Tina L.; Hougaard, David; Torrey, E. Fuller; Yolken, Robert H.

In: Biological Psychiatry, Vol. 61, No. 5, 01.03.2007, p. 688-693.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Mortensen, Preben Bo ; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent ; Waltoft, Berit Lindum ; Sørensen, Tina L. ; Hougaard, David ; Torrey, E. Fuller ; Yolken, Robert H. / Toxoplasma gondii as a Risk Factor for Early-Onset Schizophrenia : Analysis of Filter Paper Blood Samples Obtained at Birth. In: Biological Psychiatry. 2007 ; Vol. 61, No. 5. pp. 688-693.
@article{648dce1142e54a70af3347ee2029ad47,
title = "Toxoplasma gondii as a Risk Factor for Early-Onset Schizophrenia: Analysis of Filter Paper Blood Samples Obtained at Birth",
abstract = "Background: Infections during fetal life or neonatal period, including infections with Toxoplasma gondii, may be associated with a risk for schizophrenia and other mental disorders. The objectives of this study were to study the association between serological markers for maternal and neonatal infection and the risk for schizophrenia, related psychoses, and affective disorders in a national cohort of newborns. Methods: This study was a cohort-based, case-control study combining data from national population registers and patient registers and a national neonatal screening biobank in Denmark. Patients included persons born in Denmark in 1981 or later followed up through 1999 with respect to inpatient or outpatient treatment for schizophrenia or related disorders (ICD-10 F2) or affective disorders (ICD-10 F3). Results: Toxoplasma gondii immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels corresponding to the upper quartile among control subjects were significantly associated with schizophrenia risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.79, p = .045) after adjustment for urbanicity of place of birth, year of birth, gender, and psychiatric diagnoses among first-degree relatives. There was no significant association between any marker of infection and other schizophrenia-like disorders or affective disorders. Conclusions: Our study supports an association between Toxoplasma gondii and early-onset schizophrenia. Further studies are needed to establish if the association is causal and if it generalizes to cases with onset after age 18.",
keywords = "Affective disorder, neonatal, psychosis, schizophrenia, Toxoplasma gondii",
author = "Mortensen, {Preben Bo} and Bent N{\o}rgaard-Pedersen and Waltoft, {Berit Lindum} and S{\o}rensen, {Tina L.} and David Hougaard and Torrey, {E. Fuller} and Yolken, {Robert H}",
year = "2007",
month = "3",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.05.024",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "61",
pages = "688--693",
journal = "Biological Psychiatry",
issn = "0006-3223",
publisher = "Elsevier USA",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Toxoplasma gondii as a Risk Factor for Early-Onset Schizophrenia

T2 - Analysis of Filter Paper Blood Samples Obtained at Birth

AU - Mortensen, Preben Bo

AU - Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent

AU - Waltoft, Berit Lindum

AU - Sørensen, Tina L.

AU - Hougaard, David

AU - Torrey, E. Fuller

AU - Yolken, Robert H

PY - 2007/3/1

Y1 - 2007/3/1

N2 - Background: Infections during fetal life or neonatal period, including infections with Toxoplasma gondii, may be associated with a risk for schizophrenia and other mental disorders. The objectives of this study were to study the association between serological markers for maternal and neonatal infection and the risk for schizophrenia, related psychoses, and affective disorders in a national cohort of newborns. Methods: This study was a cohort-based, case-control study combining data from national population registers and patient registers and a national neonatal screening biobank in Denmark. Patients included persons born in Denmark in 1981 or later followed up through 1999 with respect to inpatient or outpatient treatment for schizophrenia or related disorders (ICD-10 F2) or affective disorders (ICD-10 F3). Results: Toxoplasma gondii immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels corresponding to the upper quartile among control subjects were significantly associated with schizophrenia risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.79, p = .045) after adjustment for urbanicity of place of birth, year of birth, gender, and psychiatric diagnoses among first-degree relatives. There was no significant association between any marker of infection and other schizophrenia-like disorders or affective disorders. Conclusions: Our study supports an association between Toxoplasma gondii and early-onset schizophrenia. Further studies are needed to establish if the association is causal and if it generalizes to cases with onset after age 18.

AB - Background: Infections during fetal life or neonatal period, including infections with Toxoplasma gondii, may be associated with a risk for schizophrenia and other mental disorders. The objectives of this study were to study the association between serological markers for maternal and neonatal infection and the risk for schizophrenia, related psychoses, and affective disorders in a national cohort of newborns. Methods: This study was a cohort-based, case-control study combining data from national population registers and patient registers and a national neonatal screening biobank in Denmark. Patients included persons born in Denmark in 1981 or later followed up through 1999 with respect to inpatient or outpatient treatment for schizophrenia or related disorders (ICD-10 F2) or affective disorders (ICD-10 F3). Results: Toxoplasma gondii immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels corresponding to the upper quartile among control subjects were significantly associated with schizophrenia risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.79, p = .045) after adjustment for urbanicity of place of birth, year of birth, gender, and psychiatric diagnoses among first-degree relatives. There was no significant association between any marker of infection and other schizophrenia-like disorders or affective disorders. Conclusions: Our study supports an association between Toxoplasma gondii and early-onset schizophrenia. Further studies are needed to establish if the association is causal and if it generalizes to cases with onset after age 18.

KW - Affective disorder

KW - neonatal

KW - psychosis

KW - schizophrenia

KW - Toxoplasma gondii

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33847283324&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33847283324&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.05.024

DO - 10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.05.024

M3 - Article

VL - 61

SP - 688

EP - 693

JO - Biological Psychiatry

JF - Biological Psychiatry

SN - 0006-3223

IS - 5

ER -