Toxicogenomic analysis provides new insights into molecular mechanisms of the sublethal toxicity of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in Eisenia fetida

Ping Gong, Xin Guan, Laura S. Inouye, Mehdi Pirooznia, Karl J. Indest, Rebecca S. Athow, Youping Deng, Edward J. Perkins

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Xenobiotics such as explosives and pesticides released into the environment can have lethal and sublethal impacts on soil organisms such as earthworms with potential subsequent impacts athighertrophic levels. To better understand the molecular toxicological mechanisms of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), a commonly used explosive, in Eisenia fetida, earthworms were exposed to a gradient of TNT-spiked soils for 28 days and impacts on gene expression were examined using a 4032 cDNA microarray. Reproduction was increased at low doses of TNT, whereas high doses of TNT reduced juvenile production. On the basis of reproduction responses to TNT, four treatments, that is, control, 2,10.6, and 38.7 mg/kg, were selected for gene expression studies in a balanced interwoven loop design microarray experiment in which the expression of 311 transcripts was significantly affected. Reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-QPCR) data on 68 selected differentially and nondifferentially expressed transcripts showed a significant correlation with microarray results. The expression of genes involved in multiple biological processes was altered, including muscle contraction, neuronal signaling and growth, ubiquitinylation, fibrinolysis and coagulation, iron and calcium homeostasis, oxygen transport, and immunity. Chitinase activity assays confirmed down-regulation of chitinase genes as indicated by array and RT-QPCR data. An acute toxicity test provided evidence that dermal contact with TNT can cause bleeding, inflammation, and constriction, which may be explained by gene expression results. Sublethal doses of TNT affected the nervous system, caused blood disorders similar to methemoglobinemia, and weakened immunity in E. fetida.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)8195-8202
Number of pages8
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Volume41
Issue number23
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2007
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Trinitrotoluene
trinitrotoluene
Microarrays
Gene expression
Toxicity
Polymerase chain reaction
Transcription
toxicity
Genes
Soils
gene expression
Neurology
Chitinases
Pesticides
Coagulation
immunity
Muscle
Calcium
Assays
earthworm

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry

Cite this

Toxicogenomic analysis provides new insights into molecular mechanisms of the sublethal toxicity of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in Eisenia fetida. / Gong, Ping; Guan, Xin; Inouye, Laura S.; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Indest, Karl J.; Athow, Rebecca S.; Deng, Youping; Perkins, Edward J.

In: Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 41, No. 23, 01.12.2007, p. 8195-8202.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gong, Ping ; Guan, Xin ; Inouye, Laura S. ; Pirooznia, Mehdi ; Indest, Karl J. ; Athow, Rebecca S. ; Deng, Youping ; Perkins, Edward J. / Toxicogenomic analysis provides new insights into molecular mechanisms of the sublethal toxicity of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in Eisenia fetida. In: Environmental Science and Technology. 2007 ; Vol. 41, No. 23. pp. 8195-8202.
@article{4599842adb2c464aa4ff9c2a193fe573,
title = "Toxicogenomic analysis provides new insights into molecular mechanisms of the sublethal toxicity of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in Eisenia fetida",
abstract = "Xenobiotics such as explosives and pesticides released into the environment can have lethal and sublethal impacts on soil organisms such as earthworms with potential subsequent impacts athighertrophic levels. To better understand the molecular toxicological mechanisms of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), a commonly used explosive, in Eisenia fetida, earthworms were exposed to a gradient of TNT-spiked soils for 28 days and impacts on gene expression were examined using a 4032 cDNA microarray. Reproduction was increased at low doses of TNT, whereas high doses of TNT reduced juvenile production. On the basis of reproduction responses to TNT, four treatments, that is, control, 2,10.6, and 38.7 mg/kg, were selected for gene expression studies in a balanced interwoven loop design microarray experiment in which the expression of 311 transcripts was significantly affected. Reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-QPCR) data on 68 selected differentially and nondifferentially expressed transcripts showed a significant correlation with microarray results. The expression of genes involved in multiple biological processes was altered, including muscle contraction, neuronal signaling and growth, ubiquitinylation, fibrinolysis and coagulation, iron and calcium homeostasis, oxygen transport, and immunity. Chitinase activity assays confirmed down-regulation of chitinase genes as indicated by array and RT-QPCR data. An acute toxicity test provided evidence that dermal contact with TNT can cause bleeding, inflammation, and constriction, which may be explained by gene expression results. Sublethal doses of TNT affected the nervous system, caused blood disorders similar to methemoglobinemia, and weakened immunity in E. fetida.",
author = "Ping Gong and Xin Guan and Inouye, {Laura S.} and Mehdi Pirooznia and Indest, {Karl J.} and Athow, {Rebecca S.} and Youping Deng and Perkins, {Edward J.}",
year = "2007",
month = "12",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1021/es0716352",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "41",
pages = "8195--8202",
journal = "Environmental Science & Technology",
issn = "0013-936X",
publisher = "American Chemical Society",
number = "23",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Toxicogenomic analysis provides new insights into molecular mechanisms of the sublethal toxicity of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in Eisenia fetida

AU - Gong, Ping

AU - Guan, Xin

AU - Inouye, Laura S.

AU - Pirooznia, Mehdi

AU - Indest, Karl J.

AU - Athow, Rebecca S.

AU - Deng, Youping

AU - Perkins, Edward J.

PY - 2007/12/1

Y1 - 2007/12/1

N2 - Xenobiotics such as explosives and pesticides released into the environment can have lethal and sublethal impacts on soil organisms such as earthworms with potential subsequent impacts athighertrophic levels. To better understand the molecular toxicological mechanisms of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), a commonly used explosive, in Eisenia fetida, earthworms were exposed to a gradient of TNT-spiked soils for 28 days and impacts on gene expression were examined using a 4032 cDNA microarray. Reproduction was increased at low doses of TNT, whereas high doses of TNT reduced juvenile production. On the basis of reproduction responses to TNT, four treatments, that is, control, 2,10.6, and 38.7 mg/kg, were selected for gene expression studies in a balanced interwoven loop design microarray experiment in which the expression of 311 transcripts was significantly affected. Reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-QPCR) data on 68 selected differentially and nondifferentially expressed transcripts showed a significant correlation with microarray results. The expression of genes involved in multiple biological processes was altered, including muscle contraction, neuronal signaling and growth, ubiquitinylation, fibrinolysis and coagulation, iron and calcium homeostasis, oxygen transport, and immunity. Chitinase activity assays confirmed down-regulation of chitinase genes as indicated by array and RT-QPCR data. An acute toxicity test provided evidence that dermal contact with TNT can cause bleeding, inflammation, and constriction, which may be explained by gene expression results. Sublethal doses of TNT affected the nervous system, caused blood disorders similar to methemoglobinemia, and weakened immunity in E. fetida.

AB - Xenobiotics such as explosives and pesticides released into the environment can have lethal and sublethal impacts on soil organisms such as earthworms with potential subsequent impacts athighertrophic levels. To better understand the molecular toxicological mechanisms of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), a commonly used explosive, in Eisenia fetida, earthworms were exposed to a gradient of TNT-spiked soils for 28 days and impacts on gene expression were examined using a 4032 cDNA microarray. Reproduction was increased at low doses of TNT, whereas high doses of TNT reduced juvenile production. On the basis of reproduction responses to TNT, four treatments, that is, control, 2,10.6, and 38.7 mg/kg, were selected for gene expression studies in a balanced interwoven loop design microarray experiment in which the expression of 311 transcripts was significantly affected. Reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-QPCR) data on 68 selected differentially and nondifferentially expressed transcripts showed a significant correlation with microarray results. The expression of genes involved in multiple biological processes was altered, including muscle contraction, neuronal signaling and growth, ubiquitinylation, fibrinolysis and coagulation, iron and calcium homeostasis, oxygen transport, and immunity. Chitinase activity assays confirmed down-regulation of chitinase genes as indicated by array and RT-QPCR data. An acute toxicity test provided evidence that dermal contact with TNT can cause bleeding, inflammation, and constriction, which may be explained by gene expression results. Sublethal doses of TNT affected the nervous system, caused blood disorders similar to methemoglobinemia, and weakened immunity in E. fetida.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=36849047287&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=36849047287&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1021/es0716352

DO - 10.1021/es0716352

M3 - Article

VL - 41

SP - 8195

EP - 8202

JO - Environmental Science & Technology

JF - Environmental Science & Technology

SN - 0013-936X

IS - 23

ER -