Towards a brain-based predictome of mental illness

Barnaly Rashid, Vince Calhoun

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Neuroimaging-based approaches have been extensively applied to study mental illness in recent years and have deepened our understanding of both cognitively healthy and disordered brain structure and function. Recent advancements in machine learning techniques have shown promising outcomes for individualized prediction and characterization of patients with psychiatric disorders. Studies have utilized features from a variety of neuroimaging modalities, including structural, functional, and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data, as well as jointly estimated features from multiple modalities, to assess patients with heterogeneous mental disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism. We use the term “predictome” to describe the use of multivariate brain network features from one or more neuroimaging modalities to predict mental illness. In the predictome, multiple brain network-based features (either from the same modality or multiple modalities) are incorporated into a predictive model to jointly estimate features that are unique to a disorder and predict subjects accordingly. To date, more than 650 studies have been published on subject-level prediction focusing on psychiatric disorders. We have surveyed about 250 studies including schizophrenia, major depression, bipolar disorder, autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive–compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and substance dependence. In this review, we present a comprehensive review of recent neuroimaging-based predictomic approaches, current trends, and common shortcomings and share our vision for future directions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalHuman Brain Mapping
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2020

Keywords

  • functional magnetic resonance imaging
  • machine learning
  • multimodal studies
  • neuroimaging
  • psychiatric disorder

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anatomy
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology

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