Tic disorders, including Tourette syndrome, are an intriguing group of paroxysmal movement abnormalities that begin in childhood, have a fluctuating course, are capable of causing psychosocial and physical problems, and often improve by early adulthood. These disorders are frequently associated with a variety of comorbid problems whose negative effects may exceed those of tics. Therapy is strictly symptomatic and usually includes educational, behavioral, and a variety of pharmacological therapies. Although there is strong evidence supporting an inherited basis, the precise genetic abnormality remains unknown. A proposed poststreptococcal autoimmune etiology remains controversial. Pathophysiologically, tics appear to arise from an alteration within cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical circuits, but the definitive site is unknown. Evidence supports an abnormality of synaptic neurotransmission, likely involving the dopaminergic system.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||17|
|Journal||Handbook of clinical neurology|
|State||Published - 2011|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology