Evidence has accumulated that targeting of donor alloantigen to quiescent dendritic cells (DC) in situ or adoptive DC therapy is associated with the expansion or induction of regulatory T cells (Treg) in experimental organ transplantation. These Treg can mediate suppression of antidonor T-effector cell responses and promote allograft tolerance. In addition, Treg can exert reciprocal, inhibitory effects on DC that maintain their tolerogenic properties. Several groups have exploited DC to expand allo-Ag-specific Treg in vitro, followed by adoptive transfer of the Treg to graft recipients, an approach that holds promise for tolerogenic cell therapy in clinical cell and organ transplantation.
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