Objectives. To examine the relationship between prostate size and the method of cancer detection in men with organ-confined prostate cancer, and compare prostate size in men with and without cancer.Methods. Prostate volume was evaluated in 720 men who had undergone radical prostatectomy for Stage T1c or Stage T2 cancer. Men with Stage T2 cancer were divided into those treated before 1989 (when widespread prostate-specific antigen [PSA] testing began), or not. Gland volume was also examined in 265 men participating in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging who had no clinical evidence of cancer. Volumes were compared using linear regression to allow for age.Results. Prostate volume in men with Stage T1c cancer was statistically significantly larger than in men with Stage T2 cancer diagnosed in the pre-PSA era after adjusting for age (P = 0.0001), and statistically significantly larger than in men without cancer above age 47 years based on 95% confidence intervals. Prostate volumes in men with Stage T2 cancer diagnosed in the pre-PSA era and in men without cancer were not statistically significantly different.Conclusions. Prostate volume in men with PSA-detected, organ-confined cancer is larger than in men with palpable organ-confined cancer diagnosed in either the pre-PSA era or PSA era. These discrepancies may reflect a diagnostic bias due to the effect of benign prostatic hyperplasia on serum PSA that results in the selection of men with larger prostates for biopsy. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Inc.
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