Setting Although there is ample evidence that smoking increases the risk of tuberculosis (TB), the magnitude of impact on TB risk among HIV-infected persons is poorly described. Given that a high proportion of patients with TB are co-infected with HIV in South Africa, the risks arising from the intersection of smoking, TB, and HIV/AIDS have key relevance for tobacco control policies. Objective To evaluate the association of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) with current tobacco smoking among men with HIV in South Africa. Design Case-control study of antiretroviral therapy naïve men with confirmed HIV-infection in Johannesburg. Cases had laboratory-confirmed PTB and controls had no evidence of active TB. Participants were interviewed to collect detailed smoking histories. Results We enrolled 146 men diagnosed with PTB and 133 controls. Overall, 33% of participants were currently smoking, defined as smoking a cigarette within 2 months (34% cases vs. 32% controls, p = 0.27). Median CD4 count was lower (60 vs. 81 cells/mm3, P = 0.03) and median viral load was higher (173 vs. 67 copies/ul per thousand, P<0.001) among cases versus controls. In adjusted analyses, current smoking tripled the odds of PTB (aOR 3.2; 95%CI: 1.3-7.9, P = 0.01) and former smoking nearly doubled the odds of PTB (aOR 1.8; 95%CI 0.8-4.4, P = 0.18) compared to never smoking. Conclusions Males with HIV that smoke are at greater odds for developing PTB than non-smokers. Extensive smoking cessation programs are needed to reduce odds of TB and promote health among adults living with HIV.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)