Background: Relationships among tobacco smoking, tobacco craving, and other drug use and craving may have treatment implications in polydrug-dependent individuals. Methods: We conducted the first ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study to investigate how smoking is related to other drug use and craving during daily life. For up to 20 weeks, 106 methadone-maintained outpatients carried PalmPilots (PDAs). They reported their craving, mood, behaviors, environment, and cigarette-smoking status in 2 to 5 random-prompt entries/day and initiated PDA entries when they used cocaine or heroin or had a discrete episode of craving for cocaine or heroin. Results: Smoking frequency increased linearly with random-prompt ratings of tobacco craving, cocaine craving, and craving for both cocaine and heroin. Smoking frequency was greater during discrete episodes of cocaine use and craving than during random-prompt reports of low craving for cocaine. This pattern was also significant for dual cocaine and heroin use and craving. Smoking and tobacco craving were each considerably reduced during periods of urine-verified abstinence from cocaine, and there was a (nonsignificant) tendency for morning smoking to be especially reduced during those periods. Conclusions: This EMA study confirms that smoking and tobacco craving are strongly associated with the use of and craving for cocaine and heroin. Together with prior findings, our data suggest that tobacco and cocaine may each increase craving for (and likelihood of continued use of) themselves and each other. Treatment for tobacco dependence should probably be offered concurrently with (rather than only after) initiation of treatment for other substance-use disorders.
- Ecological momentary assessment
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Clinical Psychology
- Psychiatry and Mental health