To NET or not to NET:current opinions and state of the science regarding the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps

Sebastian Boeltz, Poorya Amini, Hans Joachim Anders, Felipe Andrade, Rostyslav Bilyy, Simon Chatfield, Iwona Cichon, Danielle M. Clancy, Jyaysi Desai, Tetiana Dumych, Nishant Dwivedi, Rachael Ann Gordon, Jonas Hahn, Andrés Hidalgo, Markus H. Hoffmann, Mariana J. Kaplan, Jason S. Knight, Elzbieta Kolaczkowska, Paul Kubes, Moritz LeppkesAngelo A. Manfredi, Seamus J. Martin, Christian Maueröder, Norma Maugeri, Ioannis Mitroulis, Luis E. Munoz, Daigo Nakazawa, Indira Neeli, Victor Nizet, Elmar Pieterse, Marko Z. Radic, Christiane Reinwald, Konstantinos Ritis, Patrizia Rovere-Querini, Michal Santocki, Christine Schauer, Georg Schett, Mark Jay Shlomchik, Hans Uwe Simon, Panagiotis Skendros, Darko Stojkov, Peter Vandenabeele, Tom Vanden Berghe, Johan van der Vlag, Ljubomir Vitkov, Maren von Köckritz-Blickwede, Shida Yousefi, Alexander Zarbock, Martin Herrmann

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

117 Scopus citations


Since the discovery and definition of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) 14 years ago, numerous characteristics and physiological functions of NETs have been uncovered. Nowadays, the field continues to expand and novel mechanisms that orchestrate formation of NETs, their previously unknown properties, and novel implications in disease continue to emerge. The abundance of available data has also led to some confusion in the NET research community due to contradictory results and divergent scientific concepts, such as pro- and anti-inflammatory roles in pathologic conditions, demarcation from other forms of cell death, or the origin of the DNA that forms the NET scaffold. Here, we present prevailing concepts and state of the science in NET-related research and elaborate on open questions and areas of dispute.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)395-408
Number of pages14
JournalCell death and differentiation
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology


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