TNF-α blockade suppresses pericystic inflammation following anthelmintic treatment in porcine neurocysticercosis

for the Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an infection of the brain with the larval cyst of the tapeworm, Taenia solium. Cysticidal treatment induces parasite killing resulting in a post inflammatory response and seizures, which generally requires corticosteroid treatment to control inflammation. The nature of this response and how to best control it is unclear. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of pretreatment with etanercept (ETN), an anti-tumor necrosis factor agent, or dexamethasone (DEX), a high potency corticosteroid, on the post treatment inflammatory response in naturally infected pigs with neurocysticercosis after a single dose of the cysticidal drug praziquantel (PZQ). Methodology/Principal findings: We followed the methods from a previously developed treatment model of NCC in naturally infected swine. The four study groups of infected pigs included 3 groups treated with PZQ on day 0: PZQ-treated alone (100 mg/kg PO; n = 9), pretreated with dexamethasone (DEX, 0.2 mg/kg IM administered on days -1, +1 and +3; n = 6), and pretreated with etanercept (ETN, 25 mg IM per animal on days -7 and 0; n = 6). The fourth group remained untreated (n = 3). As measured by quantitative RT-PCR, ETN pretreatment depressed transcription of a wide range of proinflammatory, regulatory and matrix protease encoding genes at 120 hr post PZQ treatment in capsules of cysts that demonstrated extravasated Evans Blue (EB) (a measure of blood brain barrier dysfunction) compared to animals not receiving ETN. Transcription was significantly depressed for the proinflammatory genes tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon (IFN)-γ; the inflammation regulating genes cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein (CTLA)4, interleukin (IL)-13 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β; the tissue remodeling genes matrix metalloprotease (MMP)1 and 9, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMP)1 and 2, and the genes regulating endothelial function vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)1, angiopoietin (Ang)1, Ang 2, and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1. In contrast, transcription was only modestly decreased in the DEX pretreated pigs compared to PZQ alone, and only for TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ, TGF-β and Ang1. IL-10 was not affected by either ETN or DEX pretreatments. The degree of inflammation, assessed by semi-quantitative inflammatory scores, was modestly decreased in both ETN and DEX pretreated animals compared to PZQ treated pigs whereas cyst damage scores were moderately decreased only in cysts from DEX pretreated pigs. However, the proportion of cysts with EB extravasation was not significantly changed in ETN and DEX pretreated groups. Conclusions/Significance: Overall, TNF-α blockade using ETN treatment modulated expression of a large variety of genes that play a role in induction and control of inflammation and structural changes. In contrast the number of inflammatory cells was only moderately decreased suggesting weaker effects on cell migration into the inflammatory capsules surrounding cysts than on release of modulatory molecules. Taken together, these data suggest that TNF-α blockade may provide a viable strategy to manage post-treatment pericystic inflammation that follows antiparasitic therapy for neurocysticercosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere0006059
JournalPLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Volume11
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 30 2017
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Neurocysticercosis
Anthelmintics
Praziquantel
Dexamethasone
Swine
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Inflammation
Cysts
Genes
Evans Blue
Transforming Growth Factors
Metalloproteases
Interferons
Capsules
Adrenal Cortex Hormones
Angiopoietin-2
Taenia solium
Angiopoietin-1
CD31 Antigens
Etanercept

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

TNF-α blockade suppresses pericystic inflammation following anthelmintic treatment in porcine neurocysticercosis. / for the Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru.

In: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, Vol. 11, No. 11, e0006059, 30.11.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "TNF-α blockade suppresses pericystic inflammation following anthelmintic treatment in porcine neurocysticercosis",
abstract = "Background: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an infection of the brain with the larval cyst of the tapeworm, Taenia solium. Cysticidal treatment induces parasite killing resulting in a post inflammatory response and seizures, which generally requires corticosteroid treatment to control inflammation. The nature of this response and how to best control it is unclear. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of pretreatment with etanercept (ETN), an anti-tumor necrosis factor agent, or dexamethasone (DEX), a high potency corticosteroid, on the post treatment inflammatory response in naturally infected pigs with neurocysticercosis after a single dose of the cysticidal drug praziquantel (PZQ). Methodology/Principal findings: We followed the methods from a previously developed treatment model of NCC in naturally infected swine. The four study groups of infected pigs included 3 groups treated with PZQ on day 0: PZQ-treated alone (100 mg/kg PO; n = 9), pretreated with dexamethasone (DEX, 0.2 mg/kg IM administered on days -1, +1 and +3; n = 6), and pretreated with etanercept (ETN, 25 mg IM per animal on days -7 and 0; n = 6). The fourth group remained untreated (n = 3). As measured by quantitative RT-PCR, ETN pretreatment depressed transcription of a wide range of proinflammatory, regulatory and matrix protease encoding genes at 120 hr post PZQ treatment in capsules of cysts that demonstrated extravasated Evans Blue (EB) (a measure of blood brain barrier dysfunction) compared to animals not receiving ETN. Transcription was significantly depressed for the proinflammatory genes tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon (IFN)-γ; the inflammation regulating genes cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein (CTLA)4, interleukin (IL)-13 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β; the tissue remodeling genes matrix metalloprotease (MMP)1 and 9, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMP)1 and 2, and the genes regulating endothelial function vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)1, angiopoietin (Ang)1, Ang 2, and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1. In contrast, transcription was only modestly decreased in the DEX pretreated pigs compared to PZQ alone, and only for TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ, TGF-β and Ang1. IL-10 was not affected by either ETN or DEX pretreatments. The degree of inflammation, assessed by semi-quantitative inflammatory scores, was modestly decreased in both ETN and DEX pretreated animals compared to PZQ treated pigs whereas cyst damage scores were moderately decreased only in cysts from DEX pretreated pigs. However, the proportion of cysts with EB extravasation was not significantly changed in ETN and DEX pretreated groups. Conclusions/Significance: Overall, TNF-α blockade using ETN treatment modulated expression of a large variety of genes that play a role in induction and control of inflammation and structural changes. In contrast the number of inflammatory cells was only moderately decreased suggesting weaker effects on cell migration into the inflammatory capsules surrounding cysts than on release of modulatory molecules. Taken together, these data suggest that TNF-α blockade may provide a viable strategy to manage post-treatment pericystic inflammation that follows antiparasitic therapy for neurocysticercosis.",
author = "{for the Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru} and Siddhartha Mahanty and Orrego, {Miguel A.} and Carla Cangalaya and Adrianzen, {M. Paz} and Gianfranco Arroyo and Juan Calcina and Armandoe Gonzalez and Garc{\'i}a, {H{\'e}ctor H.} and Cristina Guerra-Giraldez and Nash, {Theodore E.}",
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T1 - TNF-α blockade suppresses pericystic inflammation following anthelmintic treatment in porcine neurocysticercosis

AU - for the Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru

AU - Mahanty, Siddhartha

AU - Orrego, Miguel A.

AU - Cangalaya, Carla

AU - Adrianzen, M. Paz

AU - Arroyo, Gianfranco

AU - Calcina, Juan

AU - Gonzalez, Armandoe

AU - García, Héctor H.

AU - Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina

AU - Nash, Theodore E.

PY - 2017/11/30

Y1 - 2017/11/30

N2 - Background: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an infection of the brain with the larval cyst of the tapeworm, Taenia solium. Cysticidal treatment induces parasite killing resulting in a post inflammatory response and seizures, which generally requires corticosteroid treatment to control inflammation. The nature of this response and how to best control it is unclear. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of pretreatment with etanercept (ETN), an anti-tumor necrosis factor agent, or dexamethasone (DEX), a high potency corticosteroid, on the post treatment inflammatory response in naturally infected pigs with neurocysticercosis after a single dose of the cysticidal drug praziquantel (PZQ). Methodology/Principal findings: We followed the methods from a previously developed treatment model of NCC in naturally infected swine. The four study groups of infected pigs included 3 groups treated with PZQ on day 0: PZQ-treated alone (100 mg/kg PO; n = 9), pretreated with dexamethasone (DEX, 0.2 mg/kg IM administered on days -1, +1 and +3; n = 6), and pretreated with etanercept (ETN, 25 mg IM per animal on days -7 and 0; n = 6). The fourth group remained untreated (n = 3). As measured by quantitative RT-PCR, ETN pretreatment depressed transcription of a wide range of proinflammatory, regulatory and matrix protease encoding genes at 120 hr post PZQ treatment in capsules of cysts that demonstrated extravasated Evans Blue (EB) (a measure of blood brain barrier dysfunction) compared to animals not receiving ETN. Transcription was significantly depressed for the proinflammatory genes tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon (IFN)-γ; the inflammation regulating genes cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein (CTLA)4, interleukin (IL)-13 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β; the tissue remodeling genes matrix metalloprotease (MMP)1 and 9, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMP)1 and 2, and the genes regulating endothelial function vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)1, angiopoietin (Ang)1, Ang 2, and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1. In contrast, transcription was only modestly decreased in the DEX pretreated pigs compared to PZQ alone, and only for TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ, TGF-β and Ang1. IL-10 was not affected by either ETN or DEX pretreatments. The degree of inflammation, assessed by semi-quantitative inflammatory scores, was modestly decreased in both ETN and DEX pretreated animals compared to PZQ treated pigs whereas cyst damage scores were moderately decreased only in cysts from DEX pretreated pigs. However, the proportion of cysts with EB extravasation was not significantly changed in ETN and DEX pretreated groups. Conclusions/Significance: Overall, TNF-α blockade using ETN treatment modulated expression of a large variety of genes that play a role in induction and control of inflammation and structural changes. In contrast the number of inflammatory cells was only moderately decreased suggesting weaker effects on cell migration into the inflammatory capsules surrounding cysts than on release of modulatory molecules. Taken together, these data suggest that TNF-α blockade may provide a viable strategy to manage post-treatment pericystic inflammation that follows antiparasitic therapy for neurocysticercosis.

AB - Background: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an infection of the brain with the larval cyst of the tapeworm, Taenia solium. Cysticidal treatment induces parasite killing resulting in a post inflammatory response and seizures, which generally requires corticosteroid treatment to control inflammation. The nature of this response and how to best control it is unclear. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of pretreatment with etanercept (ETN), an anti-tumor necrosis factor agent, or dexamethasone (DEX), a high potency corticosteroid, on the post treatment inflammatory response in naturally infected pigs with neurocysticercosis after a single dose of the cysticidal drug praziquantel (PZQ). Methodology/Principal findings: We followed the methods from a previously developed treatment model of NCC in naturally infected swine. The four study groups of infected pigs included 3 groups treated with PZQ on day 0: PZQ-treated alone (100 mg/kg PO; n = 9), pretreated with dexamethasone (DEX, 0.2 mg/kg IM administered on days -1, +1 and +3; n = 6), and pretreated with etanercept (ETN, 25 mg IM per animal on days -7 and 0; n = 6). The fourth group remained untreated (n = 3). As measured by quantitative RT-PCR, ETN pretreatment depressed transcription of a wide range of proinflammatory, regulatory and matrix protease encoding genes at 120 hr post PZQ treatment in capsules of cysts that demonstrated extravasated Evans Blue (EB) (a measure of blood brain barrier dysfunction) compared to animals not receiving ETN. Transcription was significantly depressed for the proinflammatory genes tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon (IFN)-γ; the inflammation regulating genes cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein (CTLA)4, interleukin (IL)-13 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β; the tissue remodeling genes matrix metalloprotease (MMP)1 and 9, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMP)1 and 2, and the genes regulating endothelial function vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)1, angiopoietin (Ang)1, Ang 2, and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1. In contrast, transcription was only modestly decreased in the DEX pretreated pigs compared to PZQ alone, and only for TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ, TGF-β and Ang1. IL-10 was not affected by either ETN or DEX pretreatments. The degree of inflammation, assessed by semi-quantitative inflammatory scores, was modestly decreased in both ETN and DEX pretreated animals compared to PZQ treated pigs whereas cyst damage scores were moderately decreased only in cysts from DEX pretreated pigs. However, the proportion of cysts with EB extravasation was not significantly changed in ETN and DEX pretreated groups. Conclusions/Significance: Overall, TNF-α blockade using ETN treatment modulated expression of a large variety of genes that play a role in induction and control of inflammation and structural changes. In contrast the number of inflammatory cells was only moderately decreased suggesting weaker effects on cell migration into the inflammatory capsules surrounding cysts than on release of modulatory molecules. Taken together, these data suggest that TNF-α blockade may provide a viable strategy to manage post-treatment pericystic inflammation that follows antiparasitic therapy for neurocysticercosis.

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