Tissue engineering has tremendous potential to revolutionize regenerative medicine. Research activities related to tissue engineering have expanded from the repair, replacement and regeneration of bone , blood vessels [2, 3] and organs such as the kidneys and heart [2-4] to the delicate nervous system. Initial research efforts mainly focused on providing threedimensional (3D) scaffolds to facilitate the growth of nerve cells in vitro. The ultimate goal is to generate desirable cell types and create niches to support the growth and regeneration of endogenous cells and/or transplanted cells by recapitulating an in-vivo-like environment. Advances in basic neuroscience and biomaterials engineering have resulted in significant progress in this direction over the past few years. This chapter will discuss the potential and applications of tissue engineering approaches in regenerative neurological medicine.
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