Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) can cause secondary brain damage through inflammation-related pathways. Thrombin and one of its receptors, protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1); matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9; and aquaporin (AQP)-4 are stroke-related inflammatory mediators that have been implicated in ICH pathology. To further characterize the inflammatory response after ICH, we studied the temporal profile of the expression of these inflammatory mediators and assessed their potential correlation with brain edema formation after brain hemorrhage in rats. ICH was modeled by infusing autologous blood into the striatum. Then mRNA and protein expression was assessed over the course of 5 days. We found that the mRNA and/or protein expression of thrombin, PAR-1, AQP-4, and MMP-9 was upregulated between 2 h and 5 days after ICH. Each reached a maximal level at day 2, except for AQP-4 protein, which peaked at day 5. Brain water content after ICH presented a similar trend; it was increased at 2 h, peaked at day 2, and then decreased but remained elevated at day 5. Our data provide novel evidence that upregulation of these selected inflammatory mediators occurs very early and persists for several days after ICH, and that temporal patterns of expression of thrombin and AQP-4 are associated with brain edema formation. These findings have important implications for efforts to reduce secondary brain damage after ICH.
- Intracerebral hemorrhage
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
- Cell Biology