Background and Purpose: Neurological deterioration (ND) is a devastating complication after intracerebral hemorrhage but little is known about time course and predictors. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of placebo patients in intracerebral hemorrhage trials. We performed computed tomographic scans within 3 hours of symptoms and at 24 and 72 hours; and clinical evaluations at baseline, 1-hour, and days 1, 2, 3, and 15. Timing of ND was predefined as follows: hyperacute (within 1 hour), acute (1-24 hours), subacute (1-3 days), and delayed (3-15 days). Results: We enrolled 376 patients and 176 (47%) had ND within 15 days. In multivariate analyses of ND by category, hyperacute ND was associated with hematoma expansion (odds ratio [OR], 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-7.6) and baseline intracerebral hemorrhage volume (OR, 1.04 per mL; 95% CI 1.02-1.06); acute ND with hematoma expansion (OR, 7.59; 95% CI, 3.91-14.74), baseline intracerebral hemorrhage volume (OR, 1.02 per mL; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04), admission Glasgow Coma Scale (OR, 0.77 per point; 95% CI, 0.65-0.91), and interventricular hemorrhage (OR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.05-4.35); subacute ND with 72-hour edema (OR, 1.03 per mL; 95% CI, 1.02-1.05) and fever (OR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.01-6.14); and delayed ND with age (OR, 1.11 per year; 95% CI, 1.04-1.18), troponin (OR, 4.30 per point; 95% CI, 1.71-10.77), and infections (OR, 3.69; 95% CI, 1.11-12.23). Patients with ND had worse 90-day modified Rankin scores (5 versus 3; P<0.001). Conclusions: ND occurs frequently and predicts poor outcomes. Our results implicate hematoma expansion and interventricular hemorrhage in early ND, and cerebral edema, fever, and medical complications in later ND.
- Cerebral hemorrhage
- Glasgow Coma Scale
- Neurological disorders
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Advanced and Specialized Nursing