Thyroid hormone controls multiple independent programs required for limb development in Xenopus laevis metamorphosis

Donald D. Brown, Liquan Cai, Biswajit Das, Nicholas Marsh-Armstrong, Alexander M. Schreiber, Rejeanne Juste

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Thyroid hormone (TH) is required for limb development in Xenopus laevis. Specific cell types in the growing limb were targeted for expression of a dominant negative form of the TH receptor by sperm-mediated transgenesis. Limb muscle development, the innervation of muscle from the spinal cord, and cartilage growth can be inhibited without affecting patterning of the limb or differentiation of other cell types. Remodeling of the skin occurs late in metamorphosis after the limb has formed. The coordination of these independent programs is affected in part by the control that TH exerts over DNA replication in all cell types of the limb.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)12455-12458
Number of pages4
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number35
Publication statusPublished - Aug 30 2005



  • Cell autonomy
  • DNA replication
  • Thyroid hormone receptor
  • Transgenesis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • General

Cite this