Thyroid cancer affects 1.3% of the population with increasing rates of incidence over the last decade (approximately 2% per year). Although the overall prognosis is good in the differentiated subtypes, there has been a slow but steady increase in rate of deaths associated with thyroid cancer (approximately 0.7% per year over the last decade). Thyroid cancer is usually detected when: (I) patients feel a lump in the neck; (II) a routine clinical exam is performed; (III) an incidental thyroid nodule is identified on diagnostic imaging (e.g., CT neck or chest, carotid ultrasound, PET scan acquired for non-thyroid pathology). Identification of suspicious thyroid nodules results in further diagnostic work-up including laboratory assessment, further imaging, and biopsy. Accurate diagnosis is required for clinical staging and optimal patient treatment design. In this review, we aim to discuss utility of various imaging modalities and their role in thyroid cancer diagnosis and management. Additionally, we aim to highlight emerging diagnostic techniques that aim to improve diagnostic specificity and accuracy in thyroid cancer, thus paving way for precision medicine.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
- Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT)
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine