Background: HIV-1 surveys in defined populations identify underlying risks and trends useful to mount interventions. Goal: The goal of the study was to determine HIV-1 prevalence and risk factors among men working at a Malawian sugar estate. Study Design: Three independent surveys were conducted in 1994, 1997, and 1998. Procedures included obtaining informed consent, interviewing, and drawing blood for HIV and syphilis testing. Analyses determined prevalence of HIV and associated risk factors. Results: HIV prevalence was 24.3% in 1994 (n = 1691), 22.8% in 1997 (n = 615), and 20.9% in 1998 (n = 1354; P < 0.03). From 1994 to 1998, the percentage of subjects with a history of sexually transmitted disease (STD) decreased from 43.6% to 29.5% (P < 0.0001), accompanied by a substantial rise in STDs confirmed by physical examination (from 7.5% to 16.8%; P < 0.0001) and by laboratory testing for syphilis (from 6.5% to 10.4%; P < 0.0001). The percentage with multiple sex partners declined (from 62.0% to 35.2%; P < 0.0001), and condom use rose (from 10.9% to 18.9%; P < 0.0001). STDs were significantly associated with prevalent HIV infection each year. Conclusions: The prevalence of HIV has remained relatively stable and high in this cohort.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Microbiology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases