Three-Dimensional Printing Approaches for the Treatment of Critical-Sized Bone Defects

Sara Salehi, Bilal A. Naved, Warren L. Grayson

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Autografts are the current gold standards for treating critical-sized bone defects. However, advances in three-dimensional printing (3DP) technologies have lead to their increased use in the treatment of bone defects. In this chapter, we outline three general categories of 3DP: laser-based, extrusion-based, and ink-based strategies, which are used in developing surgical guides for reconstructing bone, nonbiodegradable implants or porous, biodegradable scaffolds that can be used with or without stem cells to induce the regeneration of new bone, and bioprinting of stem cells. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the various 3DP technologies for treating critical-sized defects (CSDs). Additionally, we present a meta-analysis of published studies, categorizing the research according to the methods being used to address bone defects. This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of the advantages and disadvantages of different 3DP technologies for bone repair and regeneration.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationAdvanced Surfaces for Stem Cell Research
Number of pages46
ISBN (Electronic)9781119242642
ISBN (Print)9781119242505
StatePublished - Sep 13 2016


  • 3DP
  • Bioprinting
  • Bone
  • CSD
  • Critical sized bone defect
  • Custom-designed
  • EBM
  • Inkjet
  • SLM
  • SLS
  • Three dimensional printing
  • Tissue engineering

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)
  • Materials Science(all)


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