Three-Dimensional CAIPIRINHA SPACE TSE for 5-Minute High-Resolution MRI of the Knee

Jan Fritz, Benjamin Fritz, Gaurav G. Thawait, Heiko Meyer, Wesley D. Gilson, Esther Raithel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective The aim of this study was to prospectively test the hypothesis that a 2-dimensional (2D) CAIPIRINHA (controlled aliasing in parallel imaging results in higher acceleration) sampling pattern facilitates 5-minute high spatial resolution 3-dimensional (3D) sampling perfection with application optimized contrast using different flip angle evolutions (SPACE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee with image quality similar or better than current 2D turbo spin echo (TSE) and 3D SPACE standards. Materials and Methods The study was approved by our institutional review board. Twenty asymptomatic subjects (12 men, 8 women; mean age, 42 years; age range, 24-65 years) underwent 3 T MRI of the knee. A 4-fold accelerated 3D SPACE TSE prototype with 2D CAIPIRINHA sampling pattern and 5-minute acquisition time was compared with commercially available 2-fold and 4-fold accelerated 3D SPACE and 2D TSE pulse sequences with acquisition times of 11 minutes and 15 seconds, 6 minutes and 30 seconds, as well as 9 minutes and 48 seconds, respectively. Outcome variables included image quality, anatomic visibility, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Statistical analysis included Friedman, repeated measures analysis of variances, and Cohen's weighted κ tests. Bonferroni-corrected P values of 0.005 and less were considered statistically significant. Results Overall, image quality, visibility of anatomic structures, SNR, and CNR of 3D CAIPIRINHA SPACE were statistically similar to 2-fold accelerated 3D SPACE and significantly better than 4-fold accelerated 3D SPACE, which exhibited degrading parallel imaging artifacts. Compared with 2.5-mm 2D TSE images, 0.5-mm 3D CAIPIRINHA SPACE images showed statistically similar good edge sharpness and very good contrast resolution, and significantly less partial volume as well as absent chemical shift and pulsatile flow artifacts. Visibility of menisci, anterior cruciate ligament, posterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament, and lateral collateral ligament was good to very good on 0.5-mm 3D CAIPIRINHA SPACE images as compared with good on 2.5-mm 2D TSE image (P < 0.005). The SNR of fat, fluid, and cartilage as well as CNR between cartilage, fluid, fat, posterior cruciate ligament, and menisci were minimally higher on 2.5-mm 2D TSE image (P < 0.005). Image quality, visibility of anatomic structures, SNR, and CNR of 2.5-mm 3D CAIPIRINHA SPACE and 2.5-mm 2D TSE images were good to very good without significant differences. Conclusions Three-dimensional SPACE with 2D CAIPIRINHA sampling pattern enables high-quality 3D TSE MRI of the knee at an acquisition time of 5 minutes and image quality, visibility of anatomic structures, SNR, and CNR similar to conventional 3D SPACE and 2D TSE, both of which require approximately 10-minute acquisition times.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)609-617
Number of pages9
JournalInvestigative radiology
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1 2016


  • 3D
  • CUBE
  • FSE
  • MRI
  • TSE
  • high resolution
  • isotropic
  • knee
  • multiplanar

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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