Studies were initiated to define the genetic basis of the temperature- sensitive (ts), cold adaptation (ca), and attenuation (att) phenotypes of the human parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) cp45 live attenuated vaccine candidate. Genetic data had previously suggested that the L polymerase protein of cp45, which contains three amino acid substitutions at positions 942, 992, and 1558, contributed to its temperature sensitivity (R. Ray, M. S. Galinski, B. R. Heminway, K. Meyer, F. K. Newman, and R. B. Belshe, J. Virol. 70:580-584, 1996; A. Stokes, E. L. Tierney, C. M. Sarris, B. R. Murphy, and S. L. Hall, Virus Res. 30:43-52, 1993). To study the individual and aggregate contributions that these amino acid substitutions make to the ts, att, and ca phenotypes of cp45, seven PIV3 recombinant viruses (three single, three double, and one triple mutant) representing all possible combinations of the three amino acid substitutions were recovered from full-length antigenomic cDNA and analyzed for their ts, att, and ca phenotypes. None of the seven mutant recombinant PIVs was cold adapted. The substitutions at L protein amino acid positions 992 and 1558 each specified a 105-fold reduction in plaque formation in cell culture at 40°C, whereas the substitution at position 942 specified a 300-fold reduction. Thus, each of the three mutations contributes individually to the ts phenotype. The triple recombinant which possesses an L protein with all three mutations was almost as temperature sensitive as cp45, indicating that these mutations are the major contributors to the ts phenotype of cp45. The three individual mutations in the L protein each contributed to restricted replication in the upper or lower respiratory tract of hamsters, and this likely contributes to the observed stability of the ts and att phenotypes of cp45 during replication in vivo. Importantly, the recombinant virus possessing L protein with all three mutations was as restricted in replication as was the cp45 mutant in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts of hamsters, indicating that the L gene of the cp45 virus is a major attenuating component of this candidate vaccine.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Journal of virology|
|State||Published - Mar 1 1998|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Insect Science