Children's Cancer Group (CCG) study 2891 for children with previously untreated acute myeloid leukemia enrolled more than 1200 patients between 1989 and 1995. This study showed that increased dose intensity during induction therapy improved survival for all patients except those with Down syndrome, where it proved harmful. Although increased dose intensity improved survival, it did not improve remission induction rate, indicating that the quality of remissions varies. This finding complicates the evaluation of postremission therapy options, which CCG 2891 also evaluated. Survival with related-donor allogeneic bone marrow transplantation was superior to survival with both purged autologous bone marrow transplantation and a more standard chemotherapy consolidation, whereas survival for autologous transplantation and chemotherapy was equivalent.
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