The Vestibular System

P. P. Vidal, Kathleen Cullen, I. S. Curthoys, Sascha du Lac, G. Holstein, E. Idoux, A. Lysakowski, K. Peusner, A. Sans, P. Smith

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

The survival of vertebrates is dependent on maintaining their body equilibrium in the gravitational field and being capable of orienting themselves in their environment. Studies have demonstrated that well-defined neuronal networks in the central nervous system implement these complex sensorimotor transformations, known as the vestibuloocular, cervical and optokinetic reflexes. In this chapter, the main characteristics of the vestibular system are described, including the physiologic properties related to the anatomic features of the peripheral and central vestibular system. Electrophysiological aspects and the neurotransmitters related to each vestibular nuclei are discussed, focusing on the medial vestibular nucleus. An understanding of how vestibular inputs are integrated with multimodal signals to create the internal representation of head direction throughout the Papez circuit is presented. The pharmacology of the central vestibular system is reviewed, with emphasis on recent studies which pin-point the pharmacological interactions between identified central vestibular neurons and their inputs in defined circuits. A section on the influences of the brainstem regions involved in homeostatic regulation is included. In the final section, the anatomy of the main vestibular nuclei is discussed to the extent that they are useful for understanding some important morpho-functional correlations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationThe Rat Nervous System: Fourth Edition
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Pages805-864
Number of pages60
ISBN (Print)9780080921372, 9780123742452
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 3 2014
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Vestibular Nuclei
Pharmacology
Brain Stem
Neurotransmitter Agents
Reflex
Vertebrates
Anatomy
Central Nervous System
Head
Neurons

Keywords

  • Central nervous system
  • Cholinergic receptors
  • Equilibrium
  • Excitatory amino acid
  • Neurons
  • Plasticity
  • Vestibular receptors
  • Vestibular system
  • Vestibulo-autonomic interaction
  • Vestibulo-ocular reflex

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

Vidal, P. P., Cullen, K., Curthoys, I. S., du Lac, S., Holstein, G., Idoux, E., ... Smith, P. (2014). The Vestibular System. In The Rat Nervous System: Fourth Edition (pp. 805-864). Elsevier Inc.. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-374245-2.00028-0

The Vestibular System. / Vidal, P. P.; Cullen, Kathleen; Curthoys, I. S.; du Lac, Sascha; Holstein, G.; Idoux, E.; Lysakowski, A.; Peusner, K.; Sans, A.; Smith, P.

The Rat Nervous System: Fourth Edition. Elsevier Inc., 2014. p. 805-864.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Vidal, PP, Cullen, K, Curthoys, IS, du Lac, S, Holstein, G, Idoux, E, Lysakowski, A, Peusner, K, Sans, A & Smith, P 2014, The Vestibular System. in The Rat Nervous System: Fourth Edition. Elsevier Inc., pp. 805-864. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-374245-2.00028-0
Vidal PP, Cullen K, Curthoys IS, du Lac S, Holstein G, Idoux E et al. The Vestibular System. In The Rat Nervous System: Fourth Edition. Elsevier Inc. 2014. p. 805-864 https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-374245-2.00028-0
Vidal, P. P. ; Cullen, Kathleen ; Curthoys, I. S. ; du Lac, Sascha ; Holstein, G. ; Idoux, E. ; Lysakowski, A. ; Peusner, K. ; Sans, A. ; Smith, P. / The Vestibular System. The Rat Nervous System: Fourth Edition. Elsevier Inc., 2014. pp. 805-864
@inbook{1d59e3a732df465d9bf3450d9c7d4b1f,
title = "The Vestibular System",
abstract = "The survival of vertebrates is dependent on maintaining their body equilibrium in the gravitational field and being capable of orienting themselves in their environment. Studies have demonstrated that well-defined neuronal networks in the central nervous system implement these complex sensorimotor transformations, known as the vestibuloocular, cervical and optokinetic reflexes. In this chapter, the main characteristics of the vestibular system are described, including the physiologic properties related to the anatomic features of the peripheral and central vestibular system. Electrophysiological aspects and the neurotransmitters related to each vestibular nuclei are discussed, focusing on the medial vestibular nucleus. An understanding of how vestibular inputs are integrated with multimodal signals to create the internal representation of head direction throughout the Papez circuit is presented. The pharmacology of the central vestibular system is reviewed, with emphasis on recent studies which pin-point the pharmacological interactions between identified central vestibular neurons and their inputs in defined circuits. A section on the influences of the brainstem regions involved in homeostatic regulation is included. In the final section, the anatomy of the main vestibular nuclei is discussed to the extent that they are useful for understanding some important morpho-functional correlations.",
keywords = "Central nervous system, Cholinergic receptors, Equilibrium, Excitatory amino acid, Neurons, Plasticity, Vestibular receptors, Vestibular system, Vestibulo-autonomic interaction, Vestibulo-ocular reflex",
author = "Vidal, {P. P.} and Kathleen Cullen and Curthoys, {I. S.} and {du Lac}, Sascha and G. Holstein and E. Idoux and A. Lysakowski and K. Peusner and A. Sans and P. Smith",
year = "2014",
month = "9",
day = "3",
doi = "10.1016/B978-0-12-374245-2.00028-0",
language = "English (US)",
isbn = "9780080921372",
pages = "805--864",
booktitle = "The Rat Nervous System: Fourth Edition",
publisher = "Elsevier Inc.",

}

TY - CHAP

T1 - The Vestibular System

AU - Vidal, P. P.

AU - Cullen, Kathleen

AU - Curthoys, I. S.

AU - du Lac, Sascha

AU - Holstein, G.

AU - Idoux, E.

AU - Lysakowski, A.

AU - Peusner, K.

AU - Sans, A.

AU - Smith, P.

PY - 2014/9/3

Y1 - 2014/9/3

N2 - The survival of vertebrates is dependent on maintaining their body equilibrium in the gravitational field and being capable of orienting themselves in their environment. Studies have demonstrated that well-defined neuronal networks in the central nervous system implement these complex sensorimotor transformations, known as the vestibuloocular, cervical and optokinetic reflexes. In this chapter, the main characteristics of the vestibular system are described, including the physiologic properties related to the anatomic features of the peripheral and central vestibular system. Electrophysiological aspects and the neurotransmitters related to each vestibular nuclei are discussed, focusing on the medial vestibular nucleus. An understanding of how vestibular inputs are integrated with multimodal signals to create the internal representation of head direction throughout the Papez circuit is presented. The pharmacology of the central vestibular system is reviewed, with emphasis on recent studies which pin-point the pharmacological interactions between identified central vestibular neurons and their inputs in defined circuits. A section on the influences of the brainstem regions involved in homeostatic regulation is included. In the final section, the anatomy of the main vestibular nuclei is discussed to the extent that they are useful for understanding some important morpho-functional correlations.

AB - The survival of vertebrates is dependent on maintaining their body equilibrium in the gravitational field and being capable of orienting themselves in their environment. Studies have demonstrated that well-defined neuronal networks in the central nervous system implement these complex sensorimotor transformations, known as the vestibuloocular, cervical and optokinetic reflexes. In this chapter, the main characteristics of the vestibular system are described, including the physiologic properties related to the anatomic features of the peripheral and central vestibular system. Electrophysiological aspects and the neurotransmitters related to each vestibular nuclei are discussed, focusing on the medial vestibular nucleus. An understanding of how vestibular inputs are integrated with multimodal signals to create the internal representation of head direction throughout the Papez circuit is presented. The pharmacology of the central vestibular system is reviewed, with emphasis on recent studies which pin-point the pharmacological interactions between identified central vestibular neurons and their inputs in defined circuits. A section on the influences of the brainstem regions involved in homeostatic regulation is included. In the final section, the anatomy of the main vestibular nuclei is discussed to the extent that they are useful for understanding some important morpho-functional correlations.

KW - Central nervous system

KW - Cholinergic receptors

KW - Equilibrium

KW - Excitatory amino acid

KW - Neurons

KW - Plasticity

KW - Vestibular receptors

KW - Vestibular system

KW - Vestibulo-autonomic interaction

KW - Vestibulo-ocular reflex

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84942751548&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84942751548&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/B978-0-12-374245-2.00028-0

DO - 10.1016/B978-0-12-374245-2.00028-0

M3 - Chapter

AN - SCOPUS:84942751548

SN - 9780080921372

SN - 9780123742452

SP - 805

EP - 864

BT - The Rat Nervous System: Fourth Edition

PB - Elsevier Inc.

ER -